Queen Elizabeth II Solid 0.925 Sterling | Grelly UK (2023)

Queen Elizabeth IISolid Silver 1973 Cook Islands $2 Coin with box and StampsThis is Solid 0.925 Silver 1973 Cook Islands Two Dollar CoinComplete with the Original Casethere is a mark on top of the boxThe Stamp is also from the Cook Islands it has an image of the Queen wearing a crown on the throne with the words "Twentieth Anniversary of the Coronation" & 10 cComes with a Stamp from Australia 1953 the year the Queen was CoronatedAlso included is a Australian Stamp which has a photo of the Royal Coach and footmenThe Dark Blue Case has the words "Cook Island 1973" which has a few marks (see photos)FeaturesIssuer Cook IslandsQueen Elizabeth II (1952-2022)Type Non-circulating coinYear 1973Value 2 Dollars2 NZD = GBP 1.05Currency Dollar (1972-date)Composition Silver (.925)Weight 25.7 gDiameter 38.61 mmShape RoundTechnique MilledOrientation Medal alignment ↑↑Number N# 15743References KM# 8Commemorative issue20th Anniversary of the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth IIObverseEffigy of Queen Elizabeth II facing right, date belowScript: LatinLettering:ELIZABETH II COOK ISLANDS1973Engraver: Arnold Machin Read more on WikipediaReverseHer Majesty Queen Elizabeth IIScript: LatinLettering:TWENTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CORONATIONJUNE SECOND 1953-1973JP· TWO DOLLARS ·Engraver: David Cornell Read more on WikipediaEdgeReededMintage16,000It would be a super addition to any collection, excellent display, practical piece or authentic period prop.This once belonged to my Grand Mother and she kept in a display cabinet for many years, but when she died it was placed in a box for storage.I Decided to have a clear out and I hope it will find a good homeIn Very goodconditionfor its age over 100 years oldComes from a pet and smoke free homeSorry about the poor quality photos.Theydon'tdo the item justice which looks a lot better in real lifeLike all my Auctions Bidding starts a a penny with no reserve...if your the only bidder you win it for 1p...Grab a Bargain!Would make an Magnificent Gift for any who likes the Royal Family or a Keepsake to remember great womanIn Good Condiiton for its age 50 years oldbut there are a few small marks on the coin these couls be cleaned off if desiredI do not clean my coinsA Must-Have SouvenirClick Here to Check out my Other Queen Elizabeth II Items & CoinsBid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 1,000 Satisfied CustomersI have over10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself?I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house togetherI always combined postage on multiple itemsInstant Feedback Automatically Left Immediately after Receiving PaymentAllItems Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment.

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I have sold items to coutries such asAfghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe and major cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, New York City, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Mexico City, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Manila, Mumbai, Delhi, Jakarta, Lagos, Kolkata, Cairo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Moscow, Shanghai, Karachi, Paris, Istanbul, Nagoya, Beijing, Chicago, London, Shenzhen, Essen, Düsseldorf, Tehran, Bogota, Lima, Bangkok, Johannesburg, East Rand, Chennai, Taipei, Baghdad, Santiago, Bangalore, Hyderabad, St Petersburg, Philadelphia, Lahore, Kinshasa, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, Fukuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926[a]) is, and has been since her accession in 1952, Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, and Head of the Commonwealth. She is also Queen of 12 countries that have become independent since her accession: Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis.[b]

Elizabeth was born in London to the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and was the elder of their two daughters. She was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during World War II, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, with whom she has four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward.

Elizabeth's many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and reciprocal visits to and from the Pope. She has seen major constitutional changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, and the decolonisation of Africa. She has also reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms. She is the world's oldest reigning monarch as well as Britain's longest-lived. In 2015, she surpassed the reign of her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, to become the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant in world history.

Times of personal significance have included the births and marriages of her children, grandchildren and great grandchildren, her coronation in 1953, and the celebration of milestones such as her Silver, Golden and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012, respectively. Moments of sadness for her include the death of her father, aged 56; the assassination of Prince Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten; the breakdown of her children's marriages in 1992 (her annus horribilis); the death in 1997 of her son's former wife, Diana, Princess of Wales; and the deaths of her mother and sister in 2002. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and severe press criticism of the royal family, but support for the monarchy and her personal popularity remain high.

The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 islands whose total land area is 240 square kilometres (92.7 sq mi). The Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers 1,800,000 square kilometres (690,000 sq mi) of ocean.

New Zealand is responsible for the Cook Islands' defence and foreign affairs, but they are exercised in consultation with the Cook Islands. In recent times, the Cook Islands have adopted an increasingly independent foreign policy. Although Cook Islanders are citizens of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, which is not given to other New Zealand citizens.

The Cook Islands' main population centres are on the island of Rarotonga (10,572 in 2011), where there is an international airport. There is a larger population of Cook Islanders in New Zealand itself; in the 2013 census, 61,839 people said they were Cook Islanders, or of Cook Islands descent.

With about 100,000 visitors travelling to the islands in the 2010-11 financial year, tourism is the country's main industry, and the leading element of the economy, ahead of offshore banking, pearls, and marine and fruit exports.

The Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. It was celebrated with large-scale parties and parades throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth throughout 1977, culminating in June with the official "Jubilee Days," held to coincide with the Queen's Official Birthday. The anniversary date itself was commemorated in church services across the land on 6 February 1977, and continued throughout the month. In March, preparations started for large parties in every major city of the United Kingdom, as well as for smaller ones for countless individual streets throughout the country

British twenty-five pence coin United Kingdom Value 25.0 pence sterling Mass 28.28 g Diameter 38.61 mm Thickness 2.5 mm Edge milled Composition 75% Cu, 25% Ni Years of minting 1971–1981 Catalog number - Obverse Design Queen Elizabeth II Designer Arnold Machin Design date 1963 Reverse Design Lady Diana Spencer and Charles, Prince of Wales Designer Philip Nathan Design date 1981 The commemorative British decimal twenty-five pence (25p) coin was issued in four designs between 1972 and 1981. These coins were a post-decimalisation continuation of the traditional crown, with the same value of a quarter of a pound sterling. Uniquely in British decimal coinage, the coins do not have their value stated on them. This is because previous crowns rarely did so. The coins were issued for commemorative purposes and were not intended for circulation, although they remain legal tender and must be accepted at Post Offices.[1] The coins weigh 28.28 g (0.9092 oz troy) and have a diameter of 38.61 mm. Twenty-five pence coin issues were discontinued after 1981 due to the prohibitive cost to the Royal Mint of producing such large coins with such small value. From 1990 the "crown" was revived as the commemorative five pound coin, having the same dimensions and weight but a value twenty times as great. Designs The following 25p coins were produced: 1972 issue 1972: To celebrate the Silver wedding anniversary of HM The Queen and HRH The Duke of Edinburgh. Obverse: The standard portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin with the inscription D·G·REG·F·D· ELIZABETH II. Reverse: The initials EP crowned and with a floral garland, with a naked figure of Eros at the centre. The inscription reads: ELIZABETH AND PHILIP 20 NOVEMBER 1947 - 1972. This face was also designed by Arnold Machin. Both faces are encircled by dots. The edge of the coin is milled. There were 7,452,000 cupronickel coins [2] and 100,000 silver coins issued. 1977 issue 1977: To celebrate HM The Queen's Silver Jubilee of reign. Obverse: A portrait of Queen Elizabeth II riding a horse, in a similar style to the 1953 crown celebrating her coronation. The inscription reads ELIZABETH·II DG·REG FD 1977. Reverse: A design showing coronation regalia. The Ampulla and Anointing Spoon used in the Queen's coronation are displayed crowned, and encircled by a floral border. These objects date from the 14th and 12th centuries respectively and have remained in continuous use. Both faces were designed by Arnold Machin. The edge of the coin is milled. There were 36,989,000 cupronickel coins [2] and 377,000 silver coins issued. 1980 issue 1980: To celebrate the eightieth birthday of HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother. Obverse: The standard portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin with the inscription D·G·REG·F·D· ELIZABETH II. Reverse: A portrait of the Queen Mother surrounded by a radiating pattern of bows and lions, a pun on her maiden name Bowes-Lyon. The inscription reads: QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER AUGUST 4th 1980. The reverse was designed by Professor Richard Guyatt. Both faces are encircled by dots. The edge of the coin is milled. There were 9,478,000 cupronickel coins [2] and 83,672 silver coins issued. 1981 issue 1981: To celebrate the wedding of HRH The Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer. Obverse: The standard portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin with the inscription D·G·REG·F·D· ELIZABETH II. Reverse: A profile portrait of Lady Diana Spencer partially covered by a profile portrait of HRH The Prince of Wales, both facing to the left, with the inscription H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES AND LADY DIANA SPENCER 1981. This face was designed by Philip Nathan. Both faces are encircled by dots. The edge of the coin is milled. There were 26,773,600 cupronickel coins [2] and 17,000 silver coins issued.

List of events during the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II speaking to disabled women during her visit to Grimsby in July 1977. The Queen is pictured here with the town's mayor.[1]

The Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms.[a] It was celebrated with large-scale parties and parades throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth throughout 1977, culminating in June with the official "Jubilee Days", held to coincide with the Queen's Official Birthday. The anniversary date itself was commemorated in church services across the land on 6 February 1977, and continued throughout the month. In March, preparations started for large parties in every major city of the United Kingdom, as well as for smaller ones for countless individual streets throughout the country.

The Queen had the following engagements during her Silver Jubilee:


10 February – Royal Visit to American Samoa

11 February – Royal Visit to Western Samoa

14 February – Royal Visit to Tonga

16–17 February – Royal Visit to Fiji

22 February – 7 March – Royal Visit to New Zealand including

26 February – Visit to the Maori Festival at Gisborne

28 February – State Opening of Parliament, Wellington


1 March – Visit to Queen Carnival 2 March. Visit Mosgiel (NZ) and Royal NZ Aero Club Air Show.

7–30 March – Royal Visit to Australia, including

8 March – State Opening of Parliament, Canberra

11 March – Royal Visit to Launceston, Tasmania and Newcastle, New South Wales

14 March – Royal Visit to Sydney

21 March – Royal Visit to Nuriootpa, South Australia

(Video) Where should I sell my sterling silver?

30 March – Royal Visit to Perth

23–25 March – Royal Visit to Papua New Guinea

30 March – Royal Visit to Bombay

31 March – Royal Visit to Muscat, Oman


11 April – Launch of London Transport's Silver Jubilee buses.


3 May – Launch of HMS Invincible by Queen Elizabeth II at Barrow-in-Furness

4 May – The Queen receives addresses from the House of Commons and the House of Lords

6 May – Royal Review of the Police, Hendon

7 May – Royal Review of Rolls Royces, Windsor Castle

10 May – Royal reception for delegates to the NATO Ministerial Council Meeting

11 May – Issue of the British Silver Jubilee stamps

13 May – Biggin Hill Air Fair

14–15 May – Historic Aircraft Display, White Waltham

15 May – The Queen receives the horse "Centennial" from the Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

16 May – Royal visit to the Royal Horticultural Society's Chelsea Show

17 May – Royal Visit to Glasgow (including football match, the Glasgow FA Select v the Football League XI, Hampden Park)[2]

18 May – Royal Visit to Cumbernauld and Stirling

19 May – Royal Visit to Perth and Dundee

20 May – Royal Visit to Aberdeen

23 May – Royal Visit to Edinburgh

27 May – British Genius Exhibition, Battersea Park (until 30 October)

28 May – Royal Visit to Windsor

30 May – The Queen attends gala performance of opera and ballet, Royal Opera House, Covent Garden


6 June – lighting of bonfire chain, Windsor

7 June – Silver Jubilee Bank Holiday

8 June – Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1977, Lancaster House

9 June – Royal Visit to Greenwich and River Progress

11 June – Trooping of the Colour

12 June – Royal salute at march past of Royal British Legion Standards

13 June – Garter Service, Windsor Castle

16 June – Silver Jubilee Test match, Lord's Cricket Ground (Australia v England)

20 June – Royal Visit to Lancaster, Preston, Leigh, Stretford, and Manchester

21 June – Royal Visit to St. Helens, Liverpool and Bootle Stockport

22 June – Royal Visit to Harlech Castle, Blaenau Ffestiniog, Llandudno, Conwy, Bangor and Holyhead

23 June – Royal Visit to Milford Haven, Haverfordwest, Carmarthen, Llanelli, Swansea, Neath and Barry

24 June – Royal Visit to Cardiff and Risca

28 June – Royal Review of the Royal Navy, Spithead

29 June – Royal Visit to Portsmouth

30 June – Royal Visit to South London and Royal Review of Reserve & Cadet Forces Wembley Stadium


1 July – Royal Visit to Wimbledon

4 July – Guildford Silver Jubilee Pageant (attended by Princess Anne on 6 July) (until 16 July)

6 July – Royal Visit to North London

7 July – Royal Review of the British Army of the Rhine, Germany

(Video) Most AMAZING metal detecting find I’ve EVER seen! 🤩

10 July – Silver Jubilee Powerboat Race, from HMS Belfast to Calais

11 July – Royal Visit to Norwich, Ipswich and Felixstowe

12 July – Royal Visit to Grimsby, Doncaster, Sheffield, Barnsley and Leeds

13 July – Royal Visit to Wakefield, Harrogate, Beverley, York and Hull

14 July – Royal Visit to Middlesbrough, Hartlepool (including naming of RNLB The Scout), Eston and Durham

15 July – Royal Visit to Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland

19 July – Royal Visit to Royal Tournament, Earl's Court

27 July – Royal Visit to Wolverhampton, Dudley, West Bromwich, Walsall, Birmingham, Hampton-in-Arden, Solihull and Coventry

28 July – Royal Visit to Leicester, Chesterfield, Mansfield, Derby and Nottingham

29 July – Royal Review of the Royal Air Force, RAF Finningley


3 August – Colchester Searchlight Tattoo

4 August – Cardiff Silver Jubilee Tattoo

4 August – Royal Visit to Southampton

5 August – Royal Visit to Torbay, Exeter and Plymouth (including Royal Review of the Royal Marines)

6 August – Royal Visit to Falmouth, Truro, Bodmin and St. Austell

7 August – Royal Visit to Lundy (a private visit as "time off" from the official tour)[3]

8 August – Royal Visit to Bristol, Northavon, Bath, Keynsham and Weston-super-Mare

10 August – Royal Visit to Belfast

11 August – Royal Visit to Derry

13 August – Open Day, RAF Lossiemouth

18 August – Edinburgh Military Tattoo, Edinburgh Castle

20 August – Greenwich Jubilee Clipper Week Regetta

27–29 August – Plymouth Navy Days


10 September – Lions v Barbarians Rugby Match, Twickenham

15–17 September – Ryder Cup, Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club


14–19 October – Royal Visit to Canada including

18 October – State Opening of Parliament, Ottawa

19–20 October – Royal Visit to the Bahamas

20 October – Royal Visit to the British Virgin Islands

28 October – Royal Visit to Antigua and Barbuda

30 October – Royal Visit to Mustique

31 October – Royal Visit to Barbados


22 November – Leeds United v Ajax football match, Leeds

28 November – Hong Kong Silver Jubilee Pageant


16 December – Royal opening of Piccadilly line extension to Heathrow Central

25 December – Royal Christmas Message is broadcast to the Commonwealth[4][5]


At the time, the realms were Australia, the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Fiji, Grenada, Jamaica, Mauritius, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the United Kingdom. Three of these countries - Barbados, Fiji and Mauritius - have since become republics, but a further seven countries have become Commonwealth realms since 1977.


East Riding of Yorkshire Archive Service (21 April 2016). "Walkabout by Her Majesty The Queen, Town Hall Square, Grimsby 12th July 1977". Flickr. Beverley: East Riding of Yorkshire Council. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018. Councillor P Willing, Mayor of Grimsby, is by Her Majesty's side.

The day Queen Elizabeth united Celtic and Rangers, BBC News, 14 September 2022

"Queen Picks Lundy for a Few Hours Off Duty". 12 August 1977. Retrieved 13 December 2020.

(Video) 2013 Proof Christening of Prince George 5GBP Coin

"Christmas Broadcast 1977". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. The Royal Household. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2015.

R., Elizabeth (11 November 2015). "Christmas Broadcast 1977". royal.uk. London: The Royal Household. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.


Elizabeth II

Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (1952–2022)


Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBarbadosBelizeCanadaCeylonFijiGambiaGhanaGrenadaGuyanaJamaicaKenyaMalawiMaltaMauritiusNew ZealandNigeriaPakistanPapua New GuineaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSierra LeoneSolomon IslandsSouth AfricaTanganyikaTrinidad and TobagoTuvaluUgandaUnited Kingdom


Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (husband) weddingwedding dresswedding cakeCharles III (son) Investiture of Charles, Prince of WalesAnne, Princess Royal (daughter)Prince Andrew, Duke of York (son)Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar (son)George VI (father)Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (mother)Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (sister)Mountbatten-Windsor family

Accession and


Proclamation of accessionCoronation Royal guestsParticipants in the processionCoronation chickenCoronation gownMedalHonoursAwardThe Queen's BeastsTreetops HotelMacCormick v Lord Advocate


Annus horribilisHouseholdPersonality and imagePrime ministersPillar Box WarRhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence Queen of RhodesiaChristopher John Lewis incidentLithgow PlotMarcus Sarjeant incident1975 Australian constitutional crisis Palace lettersMichael Fagan incident1987 Fijian coups d'étatDeath of Diana, Princess of Wales1999 Australian republic referendumPerth AgreementState Opening of Parliament 20212022Operation London BridgeDeath and state funeral reactionsqueuedignitaries at the funeral


Silver Jubilee

EventsMedalHonoursJubilee GardensJubilee lineJubilee Walkway

Ruby Jubilee

Queen's Anniversary Prize

Golden Jubilee

Prom at the PalaceParty at the PalaceMedalHonoursThe Odyssey

Diamond Jubilee

PageantArmed Forces Parade and MusterThames Pageant GlorianaSpirit of ChartwellConcertGibraltar FlotillaMedalHonours

Platinum Jubilee

MedalBeaconsPlatinum Party at the PalacePageantPlatinum Jubilee Celebration: A Gallop Through HistoryTrooping the ColourNational Service of ThanksgivingPlatinum PuddingThe Queen's Green CanopyPlatinum Jubilee Civic HonoursThe Bahamas Platinum Jubilee Sailing RegattaThe Queen's Platinum Jubilee ConcertBig Jubilee Read



Antigua and BarbudaAustralia official openingsCanadaJamaicaNew ZealandSaint Lucia

Ships used

HMS Vanguard (23)SS Gothic (1947)HMY Britannia

State visits


State visit to SpainState visit to RussiaState visit to Ireland


Pope Benedict XVIPresident Michael D. HigginsPresident Xi Jinping

Titles and


Head of the CommonwealthDefender of the FaithSupreme Governor of the Church of EnglandHead of the British Armed ForcesCommander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed ForcesLord of MannList of things named after Elizabeth IIRoyal Family OrderElizabeth CrossQueen's Official BirthdayFlags


Televised addresses

Royal address to the nationRoyal Christmas Message


Royal Journey (1951)A Queen Is Crowned (1953)The Queen in Australia (1954)The Royal Tour of the Caribbean (1966)Royal Family (1969)Elizabeth R: A Year in the Life of the Queen (1992)Monarchy: The Royal Family at Work (2007)The Diamond Queen (2012)Elizabeth at 90: A Family Tribute (2016)The Coronation (2018)Elizabeth: The Unseen Queen (2022)

Film and


A Question of Attribution (1992 TV)Willi und die Windzors (1996)Her Majesty (2001)The Queen (2006)The Queen (2009 TV serial)Happy and Glorious (2012)A Royal Night Out (2015)Minions (2015)The Crown (2016–)The Queen's Corgi (2019)2020 Alternative Christmas message (2020)The Prince (2021)


(Video) Maundy Money SD 480p

A Question of Attribution (1988)The Audience (2013)Handbagged


Conversation Piece at the Royal Lodge, WindsorWattle QueenPietro Annigoni's portraitsReigning QueensHer Majesty Queen Elizabeth II – An 80th Birthday PortraitThe QueenThe Coronation Theatre: Portrait of HM Queen Elizabeth IIBeautiful Portrait, The QueenQueen Elizabeth IIAlgorithm Queen


WindsorWinnipegLagosYork Minster


The Queen and IThe Little PrincessesThe Uncommon ReaderWinnie-the-Pooh Meets the QueenQueen Camilla


"God Save the Queen" (Sex Pistols song)"Her Majesty"


Machin series (list)Wilding seriesCastle seriesCanadian domestic rate stampCountry definitives





AureoleBurmeseCarrozzaDunfermlineEstimateHeight of FashionHighclerePall MallWinston


Jewels of Elizabeth IIElizabeth lineSagana LodgeVilla GuardamangiaDorgiChildren's Party at the PalaceThe Queen's Birthday PartyJeannette CharlesRosa 'Queen Elizabeth'Queen Elizabeth cake


Jubilees of British monarchs

George III

Golden Jubilee (1809)

King's StatueJubilee RockJubilee Tower (Moel Famau)


Golden Jubilee (1887)

HonoursMedalPolice MedalClock Tower, WeymouthClock Tower, BrightonBustAdelaide Jubilee International ExhibitionJubilee Issue

Diamond Jubilee (1897)

HonoursMedalJubilee DiamondCherries jubilee"Recessional"Devonshire House BallVictoria and Merrie England

George V

Silver Jubilee (1935)

MedalSilver Jubilee (train)Silver Jubilee Railway Bridge BharuchThe King's StampCanadian silver dollarJubilee (musical)Jubilee chicken

Elizabeth II

Silver Jubilee (1977)

EventsMedalHonoursJubilee GardensJubilee lineJubilee Walkway"God Save the Queen" (Sex Pistols song)

Ruby Jubilee (1992)

Annus horribilisElizabeth R: A Year in the Life of the QueenQueen's Anniversary Prize

Golden Jubilee (2002)

Prom at the PalaceParty at the PalaceMedalHonoursJubilee OdysseyGreat British TreesGolden Jubilee chicken

Diamond Jubilee (2012)

PageantArmed Forces Parade and MusterThames Pageant GlorianaSpirit of ChartwellConcertGibraltar FlotillaMedalHonoursThe Coronation Theatre: Portrait of HM Queen Elizabeth IIDiamond Jubilee chicken

Sapphire Jubilee (2017)

Sapphire Jubilee Snowflake Brooch

Platinum Jubilee (2022)

MedalBeaconsPlatinum Party at the PalacePageantPlatinum Jubilee Celebration: A Gallop Through History2022 Trooping the ColourNational Service of ThanksgivingAct of Loyalty ParadePlatinum PuddingThe Queen's Green CanopyCivic HonoursElizabeth: The Unseen QueenStatue of Elizabeth II (York Minster)The Bahamas Platinum Jubilee Sailing RegattaThe Queen's Platinum Jubilee ConcertBig Jubilee ReadAlgorithm Queen"Queenhood"

Categories: British monarchy-related lists1977 in the United KingdomElizabeth II-related listsSilver Jubilee of Elizabeth IIRoyal visits

Elizabeth IIHead of the CommonwealthFormal photograph of Elizabeth facing rightFormal photograph, 1958Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms (list)Reign 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022Coronation 2 June 1953Predecessor George VISuccessor Charles IIIBorn Princess Elizabeth of York21 April 1926Mayfair, London, EnglandDied 8 September 2022 (aged 96)Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire, ScotlandBurial 19 September 2022King George VI Memorial Chapel, St George's Chapel, Windsor CastleSpouse Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh​​(m. 1947; died 2021)​IssueDetailCharles IIIAnne, Princess RoyalPrince Andrew, Duke of YorkPrince Edward, Earl of Wessex and ForfarNamesElizabeth Alexandra MaryHouse WindsorFather George VIMother Elizabeth Bowes-LyonSignature Elizabeth's signature in black inkElizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states during her lifetime and 15 at the time of her death. Her reign of 70 years and 214 days was the longest of any British monarch and the longest verified reign of any female monarch in history.Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother). Her father acceded to the throne in 1936 upon the abdication of his brother Edward VIII, making then-Princess Elizabeth the heir presumptive. She was educated privately at home and began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In November 1947, she married Philip Mountbatten, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, and their marriage lasted 73 years until his death in 2021. They had four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward.When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth—then 25 years old—became queen of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (known today as Sri Lanka), as well as Head of the Commonwealth. Elizabeth reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes such as the Troubles in Northern Ireland, devolution in the United Kingdom, the decolonisation of Africa, and the United Kingdom's accession to the European Communities and withdrawal from the European Union. The number of her realms varied over time as territories gained independence and some realms became republics. As queen, Elizabeth was served by more than 170 prime ministers across her realms. Her many historic visits and meetings included state visits to China in 1986, to Russia in 1994, and to the Republic of Ireland in 2011, and meetings with five popes.Significant events included Elizabeth's coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, Diamond, and Platinum jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012, and 2022, respectively. Although she faced occasional republican sentiment and media criticism of her family—particularly after the breakdowns of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992, and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales—support for the monarchy in the United Kingdom remained consistently high throughout her lifetime, as did her personal popularity.[1] Elizabeth died in September 2022 at Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire, at the age of 96, and was succeeded by her eldest child, King Charles III. Her state funeral was the first to be held in the United Kingdom since that of Winston Churchill in 1965.Early lifeElizabeth as a thoughtful-looking toddler with curly, fair hairOn the cover of Time, April 1929Elizabeth as a rosy-cheeked young girl with blue eyes and fair hairPortrait by Philip de László, 1933Princess Elizabeth was born at 02:40 (GMT) on 21 April 1926,[2] during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York (later King George VI), was the second son of the King. Her mother, Elizabeth, Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. Princess Elizabeth was delivered by Caesarean section at 17 Bruton Street in Mayfair, which was her grandfather Lord Strathmore's London home.[3] She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May,[4][a] and named Elizabeth after her mother; Alexandra after her paternal great-grandmother, who had died six months earlier; and Mary after her paternal grandmother.[6] Called "Lilibet" by her close family,[7] based on what she called herself at first,[8] she was cherished by her grandfather George V, whom she affectionately called "Grandpa England",[9] and her regular visits during his serious illness in 1929 were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery.[10]Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930. The two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.[11] Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature, and music.[12] Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family.[13] The book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, and her attitude of responsibility.[14] Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant."[15] Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved".[16]Heir presumptiveDuring her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young and likely to marry and have children of his own, who would precede Elizabeth in the line of succession.[17] When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second in line to the throne, after her father. Later that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis.[18] Consequently, Elizabeth's father became king, taking the regnal name George VI. Since Elizabeth had no brothers, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had subsequently borne a son, he would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession, which was determined by the male-preference primogeniture in effect at the time.[19]Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College,[20] and learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses.[21] A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed specifically so she could socialise with girls her own age.[22] Later, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger.[21]In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured Canada and the United States. As in 1927, when they had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought she was too young to undertake public tours.[23] She "looked tearful" as her parents departed.[24] They corresponded regularly,[24] and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.[23]Second World WarIn Auxiliary Territorial Service uniform, April 1945In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombings of London by the Luftwaffe.[25] This was rejected by their mother, who declared, "The children won't go without me. I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave."[26] The princesses stayed at Balmoral Castle, Scotland, until Christmas 1939, when they moved to Sandringham House, Norfolk.[27] From February to May 1940, they lived at Royal Lodge, Windsor, until moving to Windsor Castle, where they lived for most of the next five years.[28] At Windsor, the princesses staged pantomimes at Christmas in aid of the Queen's Wool Fund, which bought yarn to knit into military garments.[29] In 1940, the 14-year-old Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated from the cities.[30] She stated: "We are trying to do all we can to help our gallant sailors, soldiers, and airmen, and we are trying, too, to bear our own share of the danger and sadness of war. We know, every one of us, that in the end all will be well."[30]In 1943, Elizabeth undertook her first solo public appearance on a visit to the Grenadier Guards, of which she had been appointed colonel the previous year.[31] As she approached her 18th birthday, Parliament changed the law so she could act as one of five counsellors of state in the event of her father's incapacity or absence abroad, such as his visit to Italy in July 1944.[32] In February 1945, she was appointed an honorary second subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service with the service number of 230873.[33] She trained and worked as a driver and mechanic and was given the rank of honorary junior commander (female equivalent of captain at the time) five months later.[34]Elizabeth (far left) on the balcony of Buckingham Palace with her family and Winston Churchill, 8 May 1945At the end of the war in Europe, on Victory in Europe Day, Elizabeth and Margaret mingled incognito with the celebrating crowds in the streets of London. Elizabeth later said in a rare interview, "We asked my parents if we could go out and see for ourselves. I remember we were terrified of being recognised ... I remember lines of unknown people linking arms and walking down Whitehall, all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and relief."[35]During the war, plans were drawn up to quell Welsh nationalism by affiliating Elizabeth more closely with Wales. Proposals, such as appointing her Constable of Caernarfon Castle or a patron of Urdd Gobaith Cymru (the Welsh League of Youth), were abandoned for several reasons, including fear of associating Elizabeth with conscientious objectors in the Urdd at a time when Britain was at war.[36] Welsh politicians suggested she be made Princess of Wales on her 18th birthday. Home Secretary Herbert Morrison supported the idea, but the King rejected it because he felt such a title belonged solely to the wife of a Prince of Wales and the Prince of Wales had always been the heir apparent.[37] In 1946, she was inducted into the Gorsedd of Bards at the National Eisteddfod of Wales.[38]Princess Elizabeth went on her first overseas tour in 1947, accompanying her parents through southern Africa. During the tour, in a broadcast to the British Commonwealth on her 21st birthday, she made the following pledge: "I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong."[39] The speech was written by Dermot Morrah, a journalist for The Times.[40]MarriageMain article: Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip MountbattenElizabeth met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, in 1934 and again in 1937.[41] They were second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark and third cousins through Queen Victoria. After meeting for the third time at the Royal Naval College in Dartmouth in July 1939, Elizabeth—though only 13 years old—said she fell in love with Philip, who was 18, and they began to exchange letters.[42] She was 21 when their engagement was officially announced on 9 July 1947.[43]The engagement attracted some controversy. Philip had no financial standing, was foreign-born (though a British subject who had served in the Royal Navy throughout the Second World War), and had sisters who had married German noblemen with Nazi links.[44] Marion Crawford wrote, "Some of the King's advisors did not think him good enough for her. He was a prince without a home or kingdom. Some of the papers played long and loud tunes on the string of Philip's foreign origin."[45] Later biographies reported that Elizabeth's mother had reservations about the union initially, and teased Philip as "the Hun".[46] In later life, however, she told the biographer Tim Heald that Philip was "an English gentleman".[47]At Buckingham Palace with new husband Philip after their wedding, 1947Before the marriage, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish titles, officially converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Anglicanism, and adopted the style Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, taking the surname of his mother's British family.[48] Shortly before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style His Royal Highness.[49] Elizabeth and Philip were married on 20 November 1947 at Westminster Abbey. They received 2,500 wedding gifts from around the world.[50] Elizabeth required ration coupons to buy the material for her gown (which was designed by Norman Hartnell) because Britain had not yet completely recovered from the devastation of the war.[51] In post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for Philip's German relations, including his three surviving sisters, to be invited to the wedding.[52] Neither was an invitation extended to the Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII.[53]Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Charles, on 14 November 1948. One month earlier, the King had issued letters patent allowing her children to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess, to which they otherwise would not have been entitled as their father was no longer a royal prince.[54] A second child, Princess Anne, was born on 15 August 1950.[55]Following their wedding, the couple leased Windlesham Moor, near Windsor Castle, until July 1949,[50] when they took up residence at Clarence House in London. At various times between 1949 and 1951, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in the British Crown Colony of Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. He and Elizabeth lived intermittently in Malta for several months at a time in the hamlet of Gwardamanġa, at Villa Guardamangia, the rented home of Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten. Their two children remained in Britain.[56]ReignAccession and coronationMain article: Coronation of Elizabeth IICoronation portrait by Cecil Beaton, 1953George VI's health declined during 1951, and Elizabeth frequently stood in for him at public events. When she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration in case of the King's death while she was on tour.[57] In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of the British colony of Kenya. On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, Sagana Lodge, after a night spent at Treetops Hotel, when word arrived of the death of George VI and Elizabeth's consequent accession to the throne with immediate effect. Philip broke the news to the new queen.[58] She chose to retain Elizabeth as her regnal name;[59] thus she was called Elizabeth II, which offended many Scots, as she was the first Elizabeth to rule in Scotland.[60] She was proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom.[61] Elizabeth and Philip moved into Buckingham Palace.[62]With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable that the royal house would bear the Duke of Edinburgh's name, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. Lord Mountbatten advocated the name House of Mountbatten. Philip suggested House of Edinburgh, after his ducal title.[63] The British prime minister, Winston Churchill, and Elizabeth's grandmother Queen Mary favoured the retention of the House of Windsor, so Elizabeth issued a declaration on 9 April 1952 that Windsor would continue to be the name of the royal house. Philip complained, "I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."[64] In 1960, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor was adopted for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles.[65]Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret told her sister she wished to marry Peter Townsend, a divorcé 16 years Margaret's senior with two sons from his previous marriage. Elizabeth asked them to wait for a year; in the words of her private secretary, "the Queen was naturally sympathetic towards the Princess, but I think she thought—she hoped—given time, the affair would peter out."[66] Senior politicians were against the match and the Church of England did not permit remarriage after divorce. If Margaret had contracted a civil marriage, she would have been expected to renounce her right of succession.[67] Margaret decided to abandon her plans with Townsend.[68]Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March 1953, the coronation went ahead as planned on 2 June, as Mary had requested before she died.[69] The coronation ceremony in Westminster Abbey, with the exception of the anointing and communion, was televised for the first time.[70][b] On Elizabeth's instruction, her coronation gown was embroidered with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries.[74]Continuing evolution of the CommonwealthFurther information: Commonwealth realm § From the accession of Elizabeth IIElizabeth's realms (light red and pink) and their territories and protectorates (dark red) at the beginning of her reign in 1952From Elizabeth's birth onwards, the British Empire continued its transformation into the Commonwealth of Nations.[75] By the time of her accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states was already established.[76] In 1953, Elizabeth and her husband embarked on a seven-month round-the-world tour, visiting 13 countries and covering more than 40,000 miles (64,000 km) by land, sea and air.[77] She became the first reigning monarch of Australia and New Zealand to visit those nations.[78] During the tour, crowds were immense; three-quarters of the population of Australia were estimated to have seen her.[79] Throughout her reign, Elizabeth made hundreds of state visits to other countries and tours of the Commonwealth; she was the most widely travelled head of state.[80]In 1956, the British and French prime ministers, Sir Anthony Eden and Guy Mollet, discussed the possibility of France joining the Commonwealth. The proposal was never accepted and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, the precursor to the European Union.[81] In November 1956, Britain and France invaded Egypt in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to capture the Suez Canal. Lord Mountbatten said Elizabeth was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. Eden resigned two months later.[82]A formal group of Elizabeth in tiara and evening dress with eleven politicians in evening dress or national costume.With Commonwealth leaders at the 1960 Commonwealth ConferenceThe absence of a formal mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that, following Eden's resignation, it fell to Elizabeth to decide whom to commission to form a government. Eden recommended she consult Lord Salisbury, the Lord President of the Council. Lord Salisbury and Lord Kilmuir, the Lord Chancellor, consulted the British Cabinet, Churchill, and the chairman of the backbench 1922 Committee, resulting in Elizabeth appointing their recommended candidate: Harold Macmillan.[83]The Suez crisis and the choice of Eden's successor led, in 1957, to the first major personal criticism of Elizabeth. In a magazine, which he owned and edited,[84] Lord Altrincham accused her of being "out of touch".[85] Altrincham was denounced by public figures and slapped by a member of the public appalled by his comments.[86] Six years later, in 1963, Macmillan resigned and advised Elizabeth to appoint the Earl of Home as the prime minister, advice she followed.[87] Elizabeth again came under criticism for appointing the prime minister on the advice of a small number of ministers or a single minister.[87] In 1965, the Conservatives adopted a formal mechanism for electing a leader, thus relieving the Queen of her involvement.[88]Seated with Philip on thrones at the Canadian parliament, 1957In 1957, Elizabeth made a state visit to the United States, where she addressed the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the Commonwealth. On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a parliamentary session.[89] Two years later, solely in her capacity as Queen of Canada, she revisited the United States and toured Canada.[89][90] In 1961, she toured Cyprus, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran.[91] On a visit to Ghana the same year, she dismissed fears for her safety, even though her host, President Kwame Nkrumah, who had replaced her as head of state, was a target for assassins.[92] Harold Macmillan wrote, "The Queen has been absolutely determined all through ... She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as ... a film star ... She has indeed 'the heart and stomach of a man' ... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen."[92] Before her tour through parts of Quebec in 1964, the press reported extremists within the Quebec separatist movement were plotting Elizabeth's assassination.[93] No attempt was made, but a riot did break out while she was in Montreal; Elizabeth's "calmness and courage in the face of the violence" was noted.[94]Elizabeth gave birth to her third child, Prince Andrew, on 19 February 1960, which was the first birth to a reigning British monarch since 1857.[95] Her fourth child, Prince Edward, was born on 10 March 1964.[96]In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, Elizabeth also instituted new practices. Her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970.[97]Acceleration of decolonisationIn Queensland, Australia, 1970With President Tito of Yugoslavia in Belgrade, 1972The 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the decolonisation of Africa and the Caribbean. More than 20 countries gained independence from Britain as part of a planned transition to self-government. In 1965, however, the Rhodesian prime minister, Ian Smith, in opposition to moves towards majority rule, unilaterally declared independence while expressing "loyalty and devotion" to Elizabeth, declaring her "Queen of Rhodesia".[98] Although Elizabeth formally dismissed him, and the international community applied sanctions against Rhodesia, his regime survived for over a decade.[99] As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it achieved in 1973.[100]Elizabeth toured Yugoslavia in October 1972, becoming the first British monarch to visit a communist country.[101] She was received at the airport by President Josip Broz Tito, and a crowd of thousands greeted her in Belgrade.[102]In February 1974, the British prime minister, Edward Heath, advised Elizabeth to call a general election in the middle of her tour of the Austronesian Pacific Rim, requiring her to fly back to Britain.[103] The election resulted in a hung parliament; Heath's Conservatives were not the largest party, but could stay in office if they formed a coalition with the Liberals. When discussions on forming a coalition foundered, Heath resigned as prime minister and Elizabeth asked the Leader of the Opposition, Labour's Harold Wilson, to form a government.[104]A year later, at the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, the Australian prime minister, Gough Whitlam, was dismissed from his post by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, after the Opposition-controlled Senate rejected Whitlam's budget proposals.[105] As Whitlam had a majority in the House of Representatives, Speaker Gordon Scholes appealed to Elizabeth to reverse Kerr's decision. She declined, saying she would not interfere in decisions reserved by the Constitution of Australia for the Governor-General.[106] The crisis fuelled Australian republicanism.[105]Silver JubileeLeaders of the G7 states, members of the royal family and Elizabeth (centre), London, 1977In 1977, Elizabeth marked the Silver Jubilee of her accession. Parties and events took place throughout the Commonwealth, many coinciding with her associated national and Commonwealth tours. The celebrations re-affirmed Elizabeth's popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess Margaret's separation from her husband, Lord Snowdon.[107] In 1978, Elizabeth endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by Romania's communist leader, Nicolae Ceaușescu, and his wife, Elena,[108] though privately she thought they had "blood on their hands".[109] The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of Anthony Blunt, former Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her relative and in-law Lord Mountbatten by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.[110]According to Paul Martin Sr., by the end of the 1970s Elizabeth was worried the Crown "had little meaning for" Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian prime minister.[111] Tony Benn said Elizabeth found Trudeau "rather disappointing".[111] Trudeau's supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind Elizabeth's back in 1977, and the removal of various Canadian royal symbols during his term of office.[111] In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the patriation of the Canadian constitution found Elizabeth "better informed ... than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats".[111] She was particularly interested after the failure of Bill C-60, which would have affected her role as head of state.[111]Press scrutiny and Thatcher premiershipElizabeth in red uniform on a black horseRiding Burmese at the 1986 Trooping the Colour ceremonyDuring the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony, six weeks before the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at Elizabeth from close range as she rode down The Mall, London, on her horse, Burmese. Police later discovered the shots were blanks. The 17-year-old assailant, Marcus Sarjeant, was sentenced to five years in prison and released after three.[112] Elizabeth's composure and skill in controlling her mount were widely praised.[113] That October Elizabeth was the subject of another attack while on a visit to Dunedin, New Zealand. Christopher John Lewis, who was 17 years old, fired a shot with a .22 rifle from the fifth floor of a building overlooking the parade, but missed.[114] Lewis was arrested, but never charged with attempted murder or treason, and sentenced to three years in jail for unlawful possession and discharge of a firearm. Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital with the intention of assassinating Charles, who was visiting the country with Diana and their son Prince William.[115]Elizabeth and Ronald Reagan on black horses. He bare-headed; she in a headscarf; both in tweeds, jodhpurs and riding boots.Riding at Windsor with President Reagan, June 1982From April to September 1982, Elizabeth's son, Prince Andrew, served with British forces in the Falklands War, for which she reportedly felt anxiety[116] and pride.[117] On 9 July, she awoke in her bedroom at Buckingham Palace to find an intruder, Michael Fagan, in the room with her. In a serious lapse of security, assistance only arrived after two calls to the Palace police switchboard.[118] After hosting US president Ronald Reagan at Windsor Castle in 1982 and visiting his California ranch in 1983, Elizabeth was angered when his administration ordered the invasion of Grenada, one of her Caribbean realms, without informing her.[119]Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, pioneered by The Sun tabloid.[120] As Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of The Sun, told his staff: "Give me a Sunday for Monday splash on the Royals. Don't worry if it's not true—so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards."[121] Newspaper editor Donald Trelford wrote in The Observer of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of ... it is not just that some papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not." It was reported, most notably in The Sunday Times of 20 July 1986, that Elizabeth was worried that Margaret Thatcher's economic policies fostered social divisions and was alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots, the violence of a miners' strike, and Thatcher's refusal to apply sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa. The sources of the rumours included royal aide Michael Shea and Commonwealth secretary-general Shridath Ramphal, but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished by speculation.[122] Thatcher reputedly said Elizabeth would vote for the Social Democratic Party—Thatcher's political opponents.[123] Thatcher's biographer, John Campbell, claimed "the report was a piece of journalistic mischief-making".[124] Reports of acrimony between them were exaggerated,[125] and Elizabeth gave two honours in her personal gift—membership in the Order of Merit and the Order of the Garter—to Thatcher after her replacement as prime minister by John Major.[126] Brian Mulroney, Canadian prime minister between 1984 and 1993, said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid.[127][128]In 1986, Elizabeth paid a six-day state visit to the People's Republic of China, becoming the first British monarch to visit the country.[129] The tour included the Forbidden City, the Great Wall of China, and the Terracotta Warriors.[130] At a state banquet, Elizabeth joked about the first British emissary to China being lost at sea with Queen Elizabeth I's letter to the Wanli Emperor, and remarked, "fortunately postal services have improved since 1602".[131] Elizabeth's visit also signified the acceptance of both countries that sovereignty over Hong Kong would be transferred from the United Kingdom to China in 1997.[132]By the end of the 1980s, Elizabeth had become the target of satire.[133] The involvement of younger members of the royal family in the charity game show It's a Royal Knockout in 1987 was ridiculed.[134] In Canada, Elizabeth publicly supported politically divisive constitutional amendments, prompting criticism from opponents of the proposed changes, including Pierre Trudeau.[127] The same year, the elected Fijian government was deposed in a military coup. As monarch of Fiji, Elizabeth supported the attempts of Governor-General Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement. Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic.[135]Turbulent 1990s and annus horribilisIn the wake of coalition victory in the Gulf War, Elizabeth became the first British monarch to address a joint meeting of the United States Congress in May 1991.[136]Elizabeth, in formal dress, holds a pair of spectacles to her mouth in a thoughtful posePhilip and Elizabeth in Germany, October 1992On 24 November 1992, in a speech to mark the Ruby Jubilee of her accession to the throne, Elizabeth called 1992 her annus horribilis (a Latin phrase, meaning "horrible year").[137] Republican feeling in Britain had risen because of press estimates of Elizabeth's private wealth—contradicted by the Palace—and reports of affairs and strained marriages among her extended family.[138] In March, her second son, Prince Andrew, separated from his wife, Sarah, and Mauritius removed Elizabeth as head of state; her daughter, Princess Anne, divorced Captain Mark Phillips in April;[139] angry demonstrators in Dresden threw eggs at Elizabeth during a state visit to Germany in October;[140] and a large fire broke out at Windsor Castle, one of her official residences, in November. The monarchy came under increased criticism and public scrutiny.[141] In an unusually personal speech, Elizabeth said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it might be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding".[142] Two days later, British prime minister John Major announced plans to reform the royal finances, drawn up the previous year, including Elizabeth paying income tax from 1993 onwards, and a reduction in the civil list.[143] In December, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, formally separated.[144] At the end of the year, Elizabeth sued The Sun newspaper for breach of copyright when it published the text of her annual Christmas message two days before it was broadcast. The newspaper was forced to pay her legal fees and donated £200,000 to charity.[145] Elizabeth's solicitors had taken action against The Sun five years earlier for breach of copyright after it published a photograph of her daughter-in-law the Duchess of York and her granddaughter Princess Beatrice. The case was solved with an out-of-court settlement that ordered the newspaper to pay $180,000.[clarification needed][146]In January 1994, Elizabeth broke the scaphoid bone in her left wrist as the horse she was riding at Sandringham House tripped and fell.[147] In October 1994, she became the first reigning British monarch to set foot on Russian soil.[c] In October 1995, Elizabeth was tricked into a hoax call by Montreal radio host Pierre Brassard impersonating Canadian prime minister Jean Chrétien. Elizabeth, who believed that she was speaking to Chrétien, said she supported Canadian unity and would try to influence Quebec's referendum on proposals to break away from Canada.[152]In the year that followed, public revelations on the state of Charles and Diana's marriage continued.[153] In consultation with her husband and John Major, as well as the Archbishop of Canterbury, George Carey, and her private secretary, Robert Fellowes, Elizabeth wrote to Charles and Diana at the end of December 1995, suggesting that a divorce would be advisable.[154]In August 1997, a year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris. Elizabeth was on holiday with her extended family at Balmoral. Diana's two sons, Princes William and Harry, wanted to attend church, so Elizabeth and Philip took them that morning.[155] Afterwards, for five days the royal couple shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private,[156] but the royal family's silence and seclusion, and the failure to fly a flag at half-mast over Buckingham Palace, caused public dismay.[128][157] Pressured by the hostile reaction, Elizabeth agreed to return to London and address the nation in a live television broadcast on 5 September, the day before Diana's funeral.[158] In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for Diana and her feelings "as a grandmother" for the two princes.[159] As a result, much of the public hostility evaporated.[159]In October 1997, Elizabeth and Philip made a state visit to India, which included a controversial visit to the site of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre to pay her respects. Protesters chanted "Killer Queen, go back",[160] and there were demands for her to apologise for the action of British troops 78 years earlier.[161] At the memorial in the park, she and Philip paid their respects by laying a wreath and stood for a 30‑second moment of silence.[161] As a result, much of the fury among the public softened and the protests were called off.[160] That November, Elizabeth and her husband held a reception at Banqueting House to mark their golden wedding anniversary.[162] Elizabeth made a speech and praised Philip for his role as a consort, referring to him as "my strength and stay".[162]In 1999, as part of the process of devolution within the UK, Elizabeth formally opened newly established legislatures for Wales and Scotland: the National Assembly for Wales at Cardiff in May,[163] and the Scottish Parliament at Edinburgh in July.[164]Golden JubileeAt a Golden Jubilee dinner with British prime minister Tony Blair and former prime ministers, 2002. From left to right: Blair, Margaret Thatcher, Edward Heath, Elizabeth, James Callaghan and John MajorOn the eve of the new millennium, Elizabeth and Philip boarded a vessel from Southwark, bound for the Millennium Dome. Before passing under Tower Bridge, Elizabeth lit the National Millennium Beacon in the Pool of London using a laser torch.[165] Shortly before midnight, she officially opened the Dome.[166] During the singing of Auld Lang Syne, Elizabeth held hands with Philip and British prime minister Tony Blair.[167]In 2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee, the 50th anniversary of her accession. Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated on whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure.[168] She again undertook an extensive tour of her realms, beginning in Jamaica in February, where she called the farewell banquet "memorable" after a power cut plunged the King's House, the official residence of the governor-general, into darkness.[169] As in 1977, there were street parties and commemorative events, and monuments were named to honour the occasion. One million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London,[170] and the enthusiasm shown for Elizabeth by the public was greater than many journalists had anticipated.[171]Greeting NASA employees at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, May 2007In 2003, Elizabeth sued Daily Mirror for breach of confidence and obtained an injunction which prevented the outlet from publishing information gathered by a reporter who posed as a footman at Buckingham Palace.[172] The newspaper also paid £25,000 towards her legal costs.[173] Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 Elizabeth had keyhole surgery on both knees. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer.[174]In May 2007, citing unnamed sources, The Daily Telegraph reported that Elizabeth was "exasperated and frustrated" by the policies of Tony Blair, that she was concerned the British Armed Forces were overstretched in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside issues with Blair.[175] She was, however, said to admire Blair's efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland.[176] She became the first British monarch to celebrate a diamond wedding anniversary in November 2007.[177] On 20 March 2008, at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, Elizabeth attended the first Maundy service held outside England and Wales.[178]Elizabeth addressed the UN General Assembly for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.[179] The UN secretary-general, Ban Ki-moon, introduced her as "an anchor for our age".[180] During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial garden for British victims of the September 11 attacks.[180] Elizabeth's 11-day visit to Australia in October 2011 was her 16th visit to the country since 1954.[181] By invitation of the Irish president, Mary McAleese, she made the first state visit to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch in May 2011.[182]Diamond Jubilee and longevityVisiting Birmingham in July 2012 as part of the Diamond Jubilee tourElizabeth's 2012 Diamond Jubilee marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf.[183] On 4 June, Jubilee beacons were lit around the world.[184] In November, Elizabeth and her husband celebrated their blue sapphire wedding anniversary (65th).[185] On 18 December, she became the first British sovereign to attend a peacetime Cabinet meeting since George III in 1781.[186]Elizabeth, who opened the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, also opened the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in London, making her the first head of state to open two Olympic Games in two countries.[187] For the London Olympics, she played herself in a short film as part of the opening ceremony, alongside Daniel Craig as James Bond.[188] On 4 April 2013, she received an honorary BAFTA for her patronage of the film industry and was called "the most memorable Bond girl yet" at the award ceremony.[189]Opening the Borders Railway on the day she became the longest-reigning British monarch, 2015. In her speech, she said she had never aspired to achieve that milestone.[190]On 3 March 2013, Elizabeth stayed overnight at King Edward VII's Hospital as a precaution after developing symptoms of gastroenteritis.[191] A week later, she signed the new Charter of the Commonwealth.[192] Because of her age and the need for her to limit travelling, in 2013 she chose not to attend the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting for the first time in 40 years. She was represented at the summit in Sri Lanka by Prince Charles.[193] On 20 April 2018, the Commonwealth heads of government announced that she would be succeeded by Charles as Head of the Commonwealth, which she stated was her "sincere wish".[194] She underwent cataract surgery in May 2018.[195] In March 2019, she gave up driving on public roads, largely as a consequence of a car crash involving her husband two months earlier.[196]Elizabeth surpassed her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, to become the longest-lived British monarch on 21 December 2007, and the longest-reigning British monarch and longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in the world on 9 September 2015.[197] She became the oldest current monarch after King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia died on 23 January 2015.[198] She later became the longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state following the death of King Bhumibol of Thailand on 13 October 2016,[199] and the oldest current head of state on the resignation of Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe on 21 November 2017.[200] On 6 February 2017, she became the first British monarch to commemorate a sapphire jubilee,[201] and on 20 November, she was the first British monarch to celebrate a platinum wedding anniversary.[202] Philip had retired from his official duties as the Queen's consort in August 2017.[203]cvd-19 pandemicOn 19 March 2020, as the cvd-19 pandemic hit the United Kingdom, Elizabeth moved to Windsor Castle and sequestered there as a precaution.[204] Public engagements were cancelled and Windsor Castle followed a strict sanitary protocol nicknamed "HMS Bubble".[205]In a virtual meeting with Dame Cindy Kiro during the cvd-19 pandemic, October 2021On 5 April, in a televised broadcast watched by an estimated 24 million viewers in the UK,[206] she asked people to "take comfort that while we may have more still to endure, better days will return: we will be with our friends again; we will be with our families again; we will meet again."[207] On 8 May, the 75th anniversary of VE Day, in a television broadcast at 9 pm—the exact time at which her father George VI had broadcast to the nation on the same day in 1945—she asked people to "never give up, never despair".[208] In October, she visited the UK's Defence Science and Technology Laboratory in Wiltshire, her first public engagement since the start of the pandemic.[209] On 4 November, she appeared masked for the first time in public, during a private pilgrimage to the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior at Westminster Abbey, to mark the centenary of his burial.[210] In 2021, she received her first and second cvd-19 vaccinations in January and April respectively.[211]Prince Philip died on 9 April 2021, after 73 years of marriage, making Elizabeth the first British monarch to reign as a widow or widower since Queen Victoria.[212] She was reportedly at her husband's bedside when he died,[213] and remarked in private that his death had "left a huge void".[214] Due to the cvd-19 restrictions in place in England at the time, Elizabeth sat alone at Philip's funeral service, which evoked sympathy from people around the world.[215] In her Christmas broadcast that year, she paid a personal tribute to her "beloved Philip", saying, "That mischievous, inquiring twinkle was as bright at the end as when I first set eyes on him".[216]Despite the pandemic, Elizabeth attended the 2021 State Opening of Parliament in May,[217] and the 47th G7 summit in June.[218] On 5 July, the 73rd anniversary of the founding of the UK's National Health Service, she announced that the NHS will be awarded the George Cross to "recognise all NHS staff, past and present, across all disciplines and all four nations".[219] In October 2021, she began using a walking stick during public engagements for the first time since her operation in 2004.[220] Following an overnight stay in hospital on 20 October, her previously scheduled visits to Northern Ireland,[221] the COP26 summit in Glasgow,[222] and the 2021 National Service of Remembrance were cancelled on health grounds.[223]Platinum JubileeDrones forming a corgi above Buckingham Palace at the Platinum Party at the Palace on 4 June 2022Elizabeth's Platinum Jubilee began on 6 February 2022, marking 70 years since she acceded to the throne on her father's death. On the eve of the date, she held a reception at Sandringham House for pensioners, local Women's Institute members and charity volunteers.[224] In her accession day message, Elizabeth renewed her commitment to a lifetime of public service, which she had originally made in 1947.[225]Later that month, Elizabeth had "mild cold-like symptoms" and tested positive for cvd-19, along with some staff and family members.[226] She cancelled two virtual audiences on 22 February,[227] but held a phone conversation with British prime minister Boris Johnson the following day amid a crisis on the Russo-Ukrainian border,[d][228] following which she made a donation to the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) Ukraine Humanitarian Appeal.[229] On 28 February, she was reported to have recovered and spent time with her family at Frogmore.[230] On 7 March, Elizabeth met Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau at Windsor Castle, in her first in-person engagement since her cvd diagnosis.[231] She later remarked that cvd infection "leave[s] one very tired and exhausted ... It's not a nice result".[232]Elizabeth was present at the service of thanksgiving for Prince Philip at Westminster Abbey on 29 March,[233] but was unable to attend the annual Commonwealth Day service that month[234] or the Royal Maundy service in April.[235] She missed the State Opening of Parliament in May for the first time in 59 years. (She did not attend in 1959 and 1963 as she was pregnant with Prince Andrew and Prince Edward, respectively.)[236] In her absence, Parliament was opened by the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Cambridge as counsellors of state.[237]During the Platinum Jubilee celebrations, Elizabeth was largely confined to balcony appearances, and missed the National Service of Thanksgiving.[238] For the Jubilee concert, she took part in a sketch with Paddington Bear, that opened the event outside Buckingham Palace.[239] On 13 June 2022, she became the second-longest reigning monarch in history among those whose exact dates of reign are known, with 70 years, 127 days reigned—surpassing King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand.[240] On 6 September 2022, she appointed her 15th British prime minister, Liz Truss, at Balmoral Castle in Scotland. This marked the only time she did not receive a new prime minister at Buckingham Palace during her reign.[241] No other British reign had seen so many prime ministers.[242]Elizabeth never planned to abdicate,[243] though she took on fewer public engagements as she grew older and Prince Charles took on more of her duties.[244] The Queen told Canadian governor general Adrienne Clarkson in a meeting in 2002 that she would never abdicate, saying "It is not our tradition. Although, I suppose if I became completely gaga, one would have to do something".[245] In June 2022, Elizabeth met the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, who "came away thinking there is someone who has no fear of death, has hope in the future, knows the rock on which she stands and that gives her strength."[246]DeathMain article: Death and state funeral of Elizabeth IITributes left by people in The Mall, LondonOn 8 September 2022, Buckingham Palace released a statement which read: "Following further evaluation this morning, the Queen's doctors are concerned for Her Majesty's health and have recommended she remain under medical supervision. The Queen remains comfortable and at Balmoral."[247] Elizabeth's immediate family rushed to Balmoral to be by her side.[248] She died "peacefully" at 15:10 BST at the age of 96, with her death being announced to the public at 18:30,[249] setting in motion Operation London Bridge and, because she died in Scotland, Operation Unicorn.[250] Elizabeth was the first monarch to die in Scotland since James V in 1542.[251] Her cause of death was recorded as "old age".[252]On 12 September, Elizabeth's coffin was carried up the Royal Mile in a procession to St Giles' Cathedral, where the Crown of Scotland was placed on it.[253] Her coffin lay at rest at the cathedral for 24 hours, guarded by the Royal Company of Archers, during which around 33,000 people filed past the coffin.[254] It was taken by air to London on 13 September. On 14 September, her coffin was taken in a military procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall, where Elizabeth lay in state for four days. The coffin was guarded by members of both the Sovereign's Bodyguard and the Household Division. An estimated 250,000 members of the public filed past the coffin, as did politicians and other public figures.[255][256] On 16 September, Elizabeth's children held a vigil around her coffin, and the next day her eight grandchildren did the same.[257][258]Queen Elizabeth II's coffin on the State Gun Carriage of the Royal Navy, during the procession to Wellington ArchElizabeth's state funeral was held at Westminster Abbey on 19 September, which marked the first time that a monarch's funeral service had been held at the Abbey since George II in 1760.[259] More than a million people lined the streets of central London,[260] and the day was declared a holiday in several Commonwealth countries. In Windsor, a final procession involving 1,000 military personnel took place which was witnessed by 97,000 people.[261][260] Elizabeth's fell pony, and two royal corgis, stood at the side of the procession.[262] After a Committal Service at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Elizabeth was interred with her husband Philip in the King George VI Memorial Chapel later the same day in a private ceremony attended by her closest family members.[263]LegacyMain article: Personality and image of Elizabeth IIBeliefs, activities and interestsPetting a dog in New Zealand, 1974Elizabeth rarely gave interviews and little was known of her personal feelings. She did not explicitly express her own political opinions in a public forum, and it is against convention to ask or reveal the monarch's views. When Times journalist Paul Routledge asked Elizabeth for her opinions on the miners' strike of 1984–85, she replied that it was "all about one man" (a reference to Arthur Scargill), with which Routledge disagreed.[264] Widely criticised in the media for asking the question, Routledge said he was not initially due to be present for the royal visit and was unaware of the protocols.[264] After the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron stated that Elizabeth was pleased with the outcome.[265] She had arguably issued a public coded statement about the referendum by telling one woman outside Balmoral Kirk that she hoped people would think "very carefully" about the outcome. It emerged later that Cameron had specifically requested that she register her concern.[266]Elizabeth had a deep sense of religious and civic duty, and took her Coronation Oath seriously.[267] Aside from her official religious role as Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, she worshipped with that church and also the national Church of Scotland.[268] She demonstrated support for inter-faith relations and met with leaders of other churches and religions, including five popes: Pius XII, John XXIII, John Paul II, Benedict XVI and Francis.[269] A personal note about her faith often featured in her annual Christmas Message broadcast to the Commonwealth. In 2000, she said:[270]To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me the teachings of Christ and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example.Elizabeth was patron of more than 600 organisations and charities.[271] The Charities Aid Foundation estimated that Elizabeth helped raise over £1.4 billion for her patronages during her reign.[272] Her main leisure interests included equestrianism and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis.[273] Her lifelong love of corgis began in 1933 with Dookie, the first corgi owned by her family.[274] Scenes of a relaxed, informal home life were occasionally witnessed; she and her family, from time to time, prepared a meal together and washed the dishes afterwards.[275]Media depiction and public opinionMagazines from the 1950s with Elizabeth II on their coverIn the 1950s, as a young woman at the start of her reign, Elizabeth was depicted as a glamorous "fairytale Queen".[276] After the trauma of the Second World War, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement heralding a "new Elizabethan age".[277] Lord Altrincham's accusation in 1957 that her speeches sounded like those of a "priggish schoolgirl" was an extremely rare criticism.[278] In the late 1960s, attempts to portray a more modern image of the monarchy were made in the television documentary Royal Family and by televising Prince Charles's investiture as Prince of Wales.[279] Her wardrobe developed a recognisable, signature style driven more by function than fashion.[280] She dressed with an eye toward what was appropriate, rather than what was in vogue.[281][page needed] In public, she took to wearing mostly solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats, allowing her to be seen easily in a crowd.[282] Her wardrobe was handled by a team that included five dressers, a dressmaker, and a milliner.[283][page needed]At Elizabeth's Silver Jubilee in 1977, the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic;[284] but, in the 1980s, public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came under media scrutiny.[285] Her popularity sank to a low point in the 1990s. Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public.[286] Although support for republicanism in Britain seemed higher than at any time in living memory, republican ideology was still a minority viewpoint and Elizabeth herself had high approval ratings.[287] Criticism was focused on the institution of the monarchy itself, and the conduct of Elizabeth's wider family, rather than her own behaviour and actions.[288] Discontent with the monarchy reached its peak on the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, although Elizabeth's personal popularity—as well as general support for the monarchy—rebounded after her live television broadcast to the world five days after Diana's death.[289]Meeting children in Brisbane, Australia, October 1982In November 1999, a referendum in Australia on the future of the Australian monarchy favoured its retention in preference to an indirectly elected head of state.[290] Many republicans credited Elizabeth's personal popularity with the survival of the monarchy in Australia. In 2010, Prime Minister Julia Gillard noted that there was a "deep affection" for Elizabeth in Australia and another referendum on the monarchy should wait until after her reign.[291] Gillard's successor, Malcolm Turnbull, who led the republican campaign in 1999, similarly believed that Australians would not vote to become a republic in her lifetime.[292] "She's been an extraordinary head of state", Turnbull said in 2021, "and I think frankly, in Australia, there are more Elizabethans than there are monarchists".[293] Similarly, referendums in both Tuvalu in 2008 and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 2009 saw voters reject proposals to become republics.[294]Polls in Britain in 2006 and 2007 revealed strong support for the monarchy,[295] and in 2012, Elizabeth's Diamond Jubilee year, her approval ratings hit 90 per cent.[296] Her family came under scrutiny again in the last few years of her life due to her son Andrew's association with convicted sex offenders Jeffrey Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell, his lawsuit with Virginia Giuffre amidst accusations of sexual impropriety, and her grandson Harry and his wife Meghan's exit from the monarchy and subsequent move to the United States.[297] Polling in Great Britain during the Platinum Jubilee, however, showed Elizabeth's personal popularity remained strong.[298] As of 2021 she remained the third most admired woman in the world according to the annual Gallup poll, her 52 appearances on the list meaning she had been in the top ten more than any other woman in the poll's history.[299]Elizabeth was portrayed in a variety of media by many notable artists, including painters Pietro Annigoni, Peter Blake, Chinwe Chukwuogo-Roy, Terence Cuneo, Lucian Freud, Rolf Harris, Damien Hirst, Juliet Pannett and Tai-Shan Schierenberg.[300][301] Notable photographers of Elizabeth included Cecil Beaton, Yousuf Karsh, Anwar Hussein, Annie Leibovitz, Lord Lichfield, Terry O'Neill, John Swannell and Dorothy Wilding. The first official portrait photograph of Elizabeth was taken by Marcus Adams in 1926.[302]FinancesFurther information: Finances of the British royal familyView of Sandringham House from the south bank of the Upper LakeSandringham House, Elizabeth's residence in Norfolk, which she personally ownedElizabeth's personal wealth was the subject of speculation for many years. In 1971, Jock Colville, her former private secretary and a director of her bank, Coutts, estimated her wealth at £2 million (equivalent to about £30 million in 2021[303]).[304] In 1993, Buckingham Palace called estimates of £100 million "grossly overstated".[305] In 2002, she inherited an estate worth an estimated £70 million from her mother.[306] The Sunday Times Rich List 2020 estimated her personal wealth at £350 million, making her the 372nd richest person in the UK.[307] She was number one on the list when it began in the Sunday Times Rich List 1989, with a reported wealth of £5.2 billion (approximately £13.8 billion in today's value),[303] which included state assets that were not hers personally.[308]The Royal Collection, which includes thousands of historic works of art and the Crown Jewels, was not owned personally but was described as being held in trust by Elizabeth for her successors and the nation,[309] as were her official residences, such as Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle,[310] and the Duchy of Lancaster, a property portfolio valued at £472 million in 2015.[311] The Paradise Papers, leaked in 2017, show that the Duchy of Lancaster held investments in the British tax havens of the Cayman Islands and Bermuda.[312] Sandringham House in Norfolk and Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire were personally owned by Elizabeth.[310] The Crown Estate—with holdings of £14.3 billion in 2019[313]—is held in trust and could not be sold or owned by her in a personal capacity.[314]Titles, styles, honours, and armsMain article: List of titles and honours of Elizabeth IITitles and stylesRoyal cypher of Elizabeth II, surmounted by St Edward's Crown.Personal flag of Elizabeth II21 April 1926 – 11 December 1936: Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York[315]11 December 1936 – 20 November 1947: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth20 November 1947 – 6 February 1952: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh[316]6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022: Her Majesty The QueenElizabeth held many titles and honorary military positions throughout the Commonwealth, was sovereign of many orders in her own countries, and received honours and awards from around the world. In each of her realms, she had a distinct title that follows a similar formula: Queen of Saint Lucia and of Her other Realms and Territories in Saint Lucia, Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories in Australia, etc. In the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, which are Crown Dependencies rather than separate realms, she was known as Duke of Normandy and Lord of Mann, respectively. Additional styles include Defender of the Faith and Duke of Lancaster.When conversing with Elizabeth, the correct etiquette was to address her initially as Your Majesty and thereafter as Ma'am (pronounced /mæm/), with a short 'a' as in jam.[317]ArmsSee also: Flags of Elizabeth IIFrom 21 April 1944 until her accession, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a lozenge bearing the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing a Tudor rose and the first and third a cross of St George.[318] Upon her accession, she inherited the various arms her father held as sovereign. Elizabeth also possessed royal standards and personal flags for use in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and elsewhere.[319]IssueName Birth Marriage Children GrandchildrenDate SpouseCharles III 14 November 1948 (age 73) 29 July 1981Divorced 28 August 1996 Lady Diana Spencer William, Prince of WalesPrince George of WalesPrincess Charlotte of WalesPrince Louis of WalesPrince Harry, Duke of SussexArchie Mountbatten-WindsorLilibet Mountbatten-Windsor9 April 2005 Camilla Parker Bowles NoneAnne, Princess Royal 15 August 1950 (age 72) 14 November 1973Divorced 28 April 1992 Mark Phillips Peter PhillipsSavannah PhillipsIsla PhillipsZara TindallMia TindallLena TindallLucas Tindall12 December 1992 Timothy Laurence NonePrince Andrew, Duke of York 19 February 1960 (age 62) 23 July 1986Divorced 30 May 1996 Sarah Ferguson Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi Sienna Mapelli MozziPrincess Eugenie, Mrs Jack Brooksbank August BrooksbankPrince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar 10 March 1964 (age 58) 19 June 1999 Sophie Rhys-Jones Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor NoneJames Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn NoneAncestryAncestors of Elizabeth II[320]See alsoHousehold of Elizabeth IIList of things named after Elizabeth IIList of jubilees of Elizabeth IIList of special addresses made by Elizabeth IIRoyal eponyms in CanadaRoyal descendants of Queen Victoria and of King Christian IXNotesHer godparents were: King George V and Queen Mary; Lord Strathmore; Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (her paternal great-granduncle); Princess Mary, Viscountess Lascelles (her paternal aunt); and Lady Elphinstone (her maternal aunt).[5]Television coverage of the coronation was instrumental in boosting the medium's popularity; the number of television licences in the United Kingdom doubled to 3 million,[71] and many of the more than 20 million British viewers watched television for the first time in the homes of their friends or neighbours.[72] In North America, almost 100 million viewers watched recorded broadcasts.[73]The only previous state visit by a British monarch to Russia was made by King Edward VII in 1908. The King never stepped ashore, and met Nicholas II on royal yachts off the Baltic port of what is now Tallinn, Estonia.[148][149] During the four-day visit, which was considered to be one of the most important foreign trips of Elizabeth's reign,[150] she and Philip attended events in Moscow and Saint Petersburg.[151]Russia invaded Ukraine one day later.ReferencesCitationsSkinner, Giden; Garrett, Cameron (11 January 2022), "Three in five favour Britain remaining a monarchy, although support falls from 2012 peak as more become uncertain", Ipsos, archived from the original on 12 July 2022, retrieved 26 July 2022;"Queen Elizabeth II", YouGov, archived from the original on 14 September 2022, retrieved 26 July 2022;Kirk, Isabelle (1 June 2022), "Platinum Jubilee: where does public opinion stand on the monarchy?", YouGov, archived from the original on 2 June 2022, retrieved 26 July 2022;Ship, Chris (2 June 2022), "Poll: Dramatic decline in support for monarchy in decade since Diamond Jubilee", ITV News, archived from the original on 22 July 2022, retrieved 26 July 2022;Smith, Matthew (13 September 2022), "How have Britons reacted to Queen Elizabeth II's death?", YouGov, archived from the original on 11 October 2022, retrieved 12 October 2022"No. 33153", The London Gazette, 21 April 1926, p. 1Bradford 2012, p. 22; Brandreth 2004, p. 103; Marr 2011, p. 76; Pimlott 2001, pp. 2–3; Lacey 2002, pp. 75–76; Roberts 2000, p. 74Hoey 2002, p. 40Brandreth 2004, p. 103; Hoey 2002, p. 40Brandreth 2004, p. 103Pimlott 2001, p. 12Williamson 1987, p. 205Pimlott 2001, p. 15Lacey 2002, p. 56; Nicolson 1952, p. 433; Pimlott 2001, pp. 14–16Crawford 1950, p. 26; Pimlott 2001, p. 20; Shawcross 2002, p. 21Brandreth 2004, p. 124; Lacey 2002, pp. 62–63; Pimlott 2001, pp. 24, 69Brandreth 2004, pp. 108–110; Lacey 2002, pp. 159–161; Pimlott 2001, pp. 20, 163Brandreth 2004, pp. 108–110Brandreth 2004, p. 105; Lacey 2002, p. 81; Shawcross 2002, pp. 21–22Brandreth 2004, pp. 105–106Bond 2006, p. 8; Lacey 2002, p. 76; Pimlott 2001, p. 3Lacey 2002, pp. 97–98Marr 2011, pp. 78, 85; Pimlott 2001, pp. 71–73Brandreth 2004, p. 124; Crawford 1950, p. 85; Lacey 2002, p. 112; Marr 2011, p. 88; Pimlott 2001, p. 51; Shawcross 2002, p. 25"Her Majesty The Queen: Early life and education", Royal Household, 29 December 2015, archived from the original on 7 May 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016Marr 2011, p. 84; Pimlott 2001, p. 47Pimlott 2001, p. 54Pimlott 2001, p. 55Warwick 2002, p. 102"Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother", Royal Household, 21 December 2015, archived from the original on 7 May 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016Crawford 1950, pp. 104–114; Pimlott 2001, pp. 56–57Crawford 1950, pp. 114–119; Pimlott 2001, p. 57Crawford 1950, pp. 137–141"Children's Hour: Princess Elizabeth", BBC Archive, 13 October 1940, archived from the original on 27 November 2019, retrieved 22 July 2009"Early public life", Royal Household, archived from the original on 28 March 2010, retrieved 20 April 2010Pimlott 2001, p. 71"No. 36973", The London Gazette (Supplement), 6 March 1945, p. 1315Bradford 2012, p. 45; Lacey 2002, p. 148; Marr 2011, p. 100; Pimlott 2001, p. 75;"No. 37205", The London Gazette (Supplement), 31 July 1945, p. 3972;Rothman, Lily (25 May 2018), "The World War II Auto Mechanic in This Photo Is Queen Elizabeth II. 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II, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-77405-1External linksListen to this article (54 minutes)53:31Spoken Wikipedia iconThis audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 23 June 2014, and does not reflect subsequent edits.(Audio help · More spoken articles)Queen Elizabeth II at the Royal Family websiteQueen Elizabeth II at the website of the Government of CanadaPortraits of Queen Elizabeth II at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at WikidataQueen Elizabeth II at IMDb Edit this at WikidataAppearances on C-SPAN Edit this at WikidataTitles and successionvteElizabeth IIQueen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (1952–2022)MonarchiesAntigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBarbadosBelizeCanadaCeylonFijiGambiaGhanaGrenadaGuyanaJamaicaKenyaMalawiMaltaMauritiusNew ZealandNigeriaPakistanPapua New GuineaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSierra LeoneSolomon IslandsSouth AfricaTanganyikaTrinidad and TobagoTuvaluUgandaUnited KingdomFamilyPrince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (husband) weddingwedding dresswedding cakeCharles III (son)Anne, Princess Royal (daughter)Prince Andrew, Duke of York (son)Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar (son)George VI (father)Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (mother)Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (sister)Mountbatten-Windsor familyAccession andcoronationProclamation of accessionCoronation Royal guestsParticipants in the processionCoronation chickenCoronation gownMedalHonoursAwardThe Queen's BeastsTreetops HotelMacCormick v Lord AdvocateReignAnnus horribilisHouseholdPersonality and imagePrime ministersPillar Box WarRhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence Queen of RhodesiaChristopher John Lewis incidentLithgow PlotMarcus Sarjeant incident1975 Australian constitutional crisis Palace lettersMichael Fagan incident1987 Fijian coups d'étatDeath of Diana, Princess of Wales1999 Australian republic referendumPerth AgreementState Opening of Parliament 20212022Operation London BridgeDeath and state funeral reactionsqueuedignitaries at the funeralJubileesSilver JubileeEventsMedalHonoursJubilee GardensJubilee lineJubilee WalkwayRuby JubileeQueen's Anniversary PrizeGolden JubileeProm at the PalaceParty at the PalaceMedalHonoursThe OdysseyDiamond JubileePageantArmed Forces Parade and MusterThames Pageant GlorianaSpirit of ChartwellConcertGibraltar FlotillaMedalHonoursSapphire JubileePlatinum JubileeMedalBeaconsPlatinum Party at the PalacePageantPlatinum Jubilee Celebration: A Gallop Through HistoryTrooping the ColourNational Service of ThanksgivingPlatinum PuddingThe Queen's Green CanopyPlatinum Jubilee Civic HonoursThe Bahamas Platinum Jubilee Sailing RegattaThe Queen's Platinum Jubilee ConcertBig Jubilee ReadCommonwealthtoursAntigua and BarbudaAustralia official openingsCanadaJamaicaNew ZealandSaint LuciaShips usedHMS Vanguard (23)SS Gothic (1947)HMY BritanniaState visitsOutgoingState visit to SpainState visit to RussiaState visit to IrelandIncomingPope Benedict XVIPresident Michael D. 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Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used.1st generationSophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia2nd generationAnne, Princess Royal and Princess of OrangePrincess AmeliaPrincess CarolineMary, Landgravine of Hesse-KasselLouise, Queen of Denmark and Norway3rd generationAugusta, Duchess of BrunswickPrincess ElizabethPrincess LouisaCaroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway4th generationCharlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of WürttembergPrincess Augusta SophiaElizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-HomburgPrincess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and EdinburghPrincess SophiaPrincess AmeliaPrincess Sophia of GloucesterPrincess Caroline of Gloucester5th generationPrincess Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-SaalfeldPrincess Elizabeth of ClarenceQueen VictoriaAugusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-StrelitzPrincess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck6th generationVictoria, Princess Royal and German EmpressAlice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by RhinePrincess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-HolsteinPrincess Louise, Duchess of ArgyllPrincess Beatrice, Princess Henry of BattenbergPrincess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-RammingenPrincess Marie of Hanover7th generationLouise, Princess Royal and Duchess of FifePrincess VictoriaMaud, Queen of NorwayMarie, Queen of RomaniaGrand Duchess Victoria Feodorovna of RussiaPrincess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-LangenburgPrincess Beatrice, Duchess of GallieraMargaret, Crown Princess of SwedenPrincess Patricia, Lady Patricia RamsayPrincess Alice, Countess of AthlonePrincess Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of BadenAlexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-SchwerinPrincess Olga of Hanover8th generationMary, Princess Royal and Countess of HarewoodPrincess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of FifePrincess Maud, Countess of SoutheskPrincess Sibylla, Duchess of VästerbottenPrincess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and GothaFrederica, Queen of Greece9th generationQueen Elizabeth IIPrincess Margaret, Countess of SnowdonPrincess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy10th generationAnne, Princess Royal11th generationPrincess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli MozziPrincess Eugenie, Mrs Jack BrooksbankLady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor112th generationPrincess Charlotte of WalesLilibet Mountbatten-Windsor11 Status debatable; see Lady Louise Windsor#Titles and styles and Lilibet Mountbatten-Windsor#Title and succession for details.vteDuchesses of EdinburghPrincess Augusta of Saxe-GothaDuchesses of Gloucester and EdinburghGrand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of RussiaPrincess Elizabeth of the United KingdomCamilla ShandvteTime Persons of the Year1927–1950Charles Lindbergh (1927)Walter Chrysler (1928)Owen D. 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died 1861)​Issue Victoria, German Empress Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Beatrice, Princess Henry of BattenbergHouse HanoverFather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and StrathearnMother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-SaalfeldSignature Victoria's signatureVictoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than any previous British monarch. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, the British Parliament voted to grant her the additional title of Empress of India.Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After the deaths of her father and grandfather in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. Victoria, a constitutional monarch, attempted privately to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, British republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.Birth and familyPortrait of Victoria at age 4Victoria at age four, by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower and later the first king of Belgium. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4:15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1]Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[a] She was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother George, Prince Regent.[2]At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: the Prince Regent (later George IV); Frederick, Duke of York; William, Duke of Clarence (later William IV); and Victoria's father, Edward, Duke of Kent.[3] The Prince Regent had no surviving children, and the Duke of York had no children; further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further legitimate children. William and Edward married on the same day in 1818, but both of William's legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, who was born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was then third in line to the throne after Frederick and William. William's second daughter, Princess Elizabeth of Clarence, lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821, and for that period Victoria was fourth in line.[4]The Duke of York died in 1827, followed by George IV in 1830; the throne passed to their next surviving brother, William, and Victoria became heir presumptive. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]Heir presumptivePortrait of Victoria with her spaniel Dash by George Hayter, 1833Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy".[7] Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the Duchess's lover.[8] The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them.[9] The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children.[10] Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash.[11] Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin,[12] but she spoke only English at home.[13]Victoria's sketch of herselfSelf-portrait, 1835In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way.[14] Similar journeys to other parts of England and Wales were taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. To the King's annoyance, Victoria was enthusiastically welcomed in each of the stops.[15] William compared the journeys to royal progresses and was concerned that they portrayed Victoria as his rival rather than his heir presumptive.[16] Victoria disliked the trips; the constant round of public appearances made her tired and ill, and there was little time for her to rest.[17] She objected on the grounds of the King's disapproval, but her mother dismissed his complaints as motivated by jealousy and forced Victoria to continue the tours.[18] At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence.[19] While Victoria was ill, Conroy and the Duchess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary.[20] As a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff.[21] Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother's household.[22]By 1836, Victoria's maternal uncle Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry her to Prince Albert,[23] the son of his brother Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Leopold arranged for Victoria's mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert.[24] William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange.[25] Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes.[26] According to her diary, she enjoyed Albert's company from the beginning. After the visit she wrote, "[Albert] is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful."[27] Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain".[28]Victoria wrote to King Leopold, whom she considered her "best and kindest adviser",[29] to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind, and so good, and so amiable too. He has besides the most pleasing and delightful exterior and appearance you can possibly see."[30] However at 17, Victoria, though interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties did not undertake a formal engagement, but assumed that the match would take place in due time.[31]Early reignAccessionDrawing of two men on their knees in front of VictoriaVictoria receives the news of her accession from Lord Conyngham (left) and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Painting by Henry Tanworth Wells, 1887.Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom.[b] In her diary she wrote, "I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen."[32] Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again.[33]Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under Salic law, women were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. While Victoria inherited the British throne, her father's unpopular younger brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, became King of Hanover. He was Victoria's heir presumptive until she had a child.[34]Coronation portrait by George HayterAt the time of Victoria's accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. He at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced monarch, who relied on him for advice.[35] Charles Greville supposed that the widowed and childless Melbourne was "passionately fond of her as he might be of his daughter if he had one", and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure.[36] Her coronation took place on 28 June 1838 at Westminster Abbey. Over 400,000 visitors came to London for the celebrations.[37] She became the first sovereign to take up residence at Buckingham Palace[38] and inherited the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall as well as being granted a civil list allowance of £385,000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid off her father's debts.[39]At the start of her reign Victoria was popular,[40] but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy.[41] Victoria believed the rumours.[42] She hated Conroy, and despised "that odious Lady Flora",[43] because she had conspired with Conroy and the Duchess of Kent in the Kensington System.[44] At first, Lady Flora refused to submit to an intimate medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually acquiesced, and was found to be a virgin.[45] Conroy, the Hastings family, and the opposition Tories organised a press campaign implicating the Queen in the spreading of false rumours about Lady Flora.[46] When Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen.[47] At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as "Mrs. Melbourne".[48]In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery.[49] The Queen commissioned a Tory, Robert Peel, to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household, who were usually his political allies and their spouses. Many of the Queen's ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the "bedchamber crisis", Victoria, advised by Melbourne, objected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office.[50]MarriageSee also: Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Wedding dress of Queen VictoriaPainting of a lavish wedding attended by richly dressed people in a magnificent roomMarriage of Victoria and Albert, painted by George HayterThough Victoria was now queen, as an unmarried young woman she was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy.[51] Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her.[52] When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking [sic] alternative".[53] Victoria showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock.[54]Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.[55] They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace, London. Victoria was love-struck. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary: I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening!!! MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert ... his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness – really how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a Husband! ... to be called by names of tenderness, I have never yet heard used to me before – was bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life![56]Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen's companion, replacing Melbourne as the dominant influential figure in the first half of her life.[57] Victoria's mother was evicted from the palace, to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Victoria's aunt, Princess Augusta, in 1840, Victoria's mother was given both Clarence and Frogmore Houses.[58] Through Albert's mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved.[59]Contemporary lithograph of Edward Oxford's attempt to assassinate Victoria, 1840During Victoria's first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or, as he later claimed, the guns had no shot.[60] He was tried for high treason, found not guilty by reason of insanity, committed to an insane asylum indefinitely, and later sent to live in Australia.[61] In the immediate aftermath of the attack, Victoria's popularity soared, mitigating residual discontent over the Hastings affair and the bedchamber crisis.[62] Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant,[63] viewed breast-feeding with disgust,[64] and thought newborn babies were ugly.[65] Nevertheless, over the following seventeen years, she and Albert had a further eight children: Albert Edward (b. 1841), Alice (b. 1843), Alfred (b. 1844), Helena (b. 1846), Louise (b. 1848), Arthur (b. 1850), Leopold (b. 1853) and Beatrice (b. 1857).The household was largely run by Victoria's childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on Victoria[66] and had supported her against the Kensington System.[67] Albert, however, thought that Lehzen was incompetent and that her mismanagement threatened his daughter's health. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue, Lehzen was pensioned off in 1842, and Victoria's close relationship with her ended.[68]Married reignPortrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1843On 29 May 1842, Victoria was riding in a carriage along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a pistol at her, but the gun did not fire. The assailant escaped; the following day, Victoria drove the same route, though faster and with a greater escort, in a deliberate attempt to bait Francis into taking a second aim and catch him in the act. As expected, Francis shot at her, but he was seized by plainclothes policemen, and convicted of high treason. On 3 July, two days after Francis's death sentence was commuted to transportation for life, John William Bean also tried to fire a pistol at the Queen, but it was loaded only with paper and tobacco and had too little charge.[69] Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840. Bean was sentenced to 18 months in jail.[70] In a similar attack in 1849, unemployed Irishman William Hamilton fired a powder-filled pistol at Victoria's carriage as it passed along Constitution Hill, London.[71] In 1850, the Queen did sustain injury when she was assaulted by a possibly insane ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a carriage, Pate struck her with his cane, crushing her bonnet and bruising her forehead. Both Hamilton and Pate were sentenced to seven years' transportation.[72]Melbourne's support in the House of Commons weakened through the early years of Victoria's reign, and in the 1841 general election the Whigs were defeated. Peel became prime minister, and the ladies of the bedchamber most associated with the Whigs were replaced.[73]Victoria cuddling a child next to herEarliest known photograph of Victoria, here with her eldest daughter, c. 1845[74]In 1845, Ireland was hit by a potato blight.[75] In the next four years, over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine.[76] In Ireland, Victoria was labelled "The Famine Queen".[77][78] In January 1847 she personally donated £2,000 (equivalent to between £178,000 and £6.5 million in 2016[79]) to the British Relief Association, more than any other individual famine relief donor,[80] and also supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition.[81] The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount to Battersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century.[82]By 1846, Peel's ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the free-trade oriented liberal conservative "Peelites"), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell.[83]Queen Victoria's British prime ministers vteStarting Prime Minister (party)18 April 1835 William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne (Whig)30 August 1841 Robert Peel (Conservative)30 June 1846 Lord John Russell (Whig)23 February 1852 Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby (Conservative)19 December 1852 George Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen (Peelite)6 February 1855 Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston (Liberal)20 February 1858 Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby (Conservative)12 June 1859 Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston (Liberal)29 October 1865 Lord John Russell (Liberal)28 June 1866 Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby (Conservative)27 February 1868 Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)3 December 1868 William Gladstone (Liberal)20 February 1874 Benjamin Disraeli [Lord Beaconsfield] (Conservative)23 April 1880 William Gladstone (Liberal)23 June 1885 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)1 February 1886 William Gladstone (Liberal)25 July 1886 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)15 August 1892 William Gladstone (Liberal)5 March 1894 Archibald Primrose, Earl of Rosebery (Liberal)25 June 1895 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)See List of prime ministers of Queen Victoria for details of her British and Imperial premiersInternationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain.[84] She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at Château d'Eu in Normandy; she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French monarch since the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.[85] When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign.[86] Louis Philippe was deposed in the revolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England.[87] At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House,[88] a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped.[89] Demonstrations by Chartists and Irish nationalists failed to attract widespread support, and the scare died down without any major disturbances.[90] Victoria's first visit to Ireland in 1849 was a public relations success, but it had no lasting impact or effect on the growth of Irish nationalism.[91]Portrait of the young Queen by Herbert Smith, 1848Russell's ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen.[92] She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen.[93] Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge, but Palmerston was retained in office and continued to act on his own initiative, despite her repeated remonstrances. It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government's approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister.[94] The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell's administration had been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby.Photograph of a seated Victoria, dressed in black, holding an infant with her children and Prince Albert standing around herAlbert, Victoria and their nine children, 1857. Left to right: Alice, Arthur, Prince Albert, Albert Edward, Leopold, Louise, Queen Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred, Victoria, and Helena.In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the aid of the new anaesthetic, chloroform. She was so impressed by the relief it gave from the pain of childbirth that she used it again in 1857 at the birth of her ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who considered it against biblical teaching, and members of the medical profession, who thought it dangerous.[95] Victoria may have had postnatal depression after many of her pregnancies.[96] Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold's birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her "continuance of hysterics" over a "miserable trifle".[97]In early 1855, the government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby, fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister.[98]Napoleon III, Britain's closest ally as a result of the Crimean War,[96] visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit.[99] Napoleon III met the couple at Boulogne and accompanied them to Paris.[100] They visited the Exposition Universelle (a successor to Albert's 1851 brainchild the Great Exhibition) and Napoleon I's tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had only been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles.[101]Portrait by Winterhalter, 1859On 14 January 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb made in England.[102] The ensuing diplomatic crisis destabilised the government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as prime minister.[103] Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin at the French military port of Cherbourg on 5 August 1858, in an attempt by Napoleon III to reassure Britain that his military preparations were directed elsewhere. On her return Victoria wrote to Derby reprimanding him for the poor state of the Royal Navy in comparison to the French Navy.[104] Derby's ministry did not last long, and in June 1859 Victoria recalled Palmerston to office.[105]Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and her husband Albert until the bride was 17.[106] The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state.[107] The Queen felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one."[108] Almost exactly a year later, the Princess gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Emperor.WidowhoodVictoria photographed by J. J. E. Mayall, 1860In March 1861, Victoria's mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply;[109] she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother.[110] To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief,[111] Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble.[112] In August, Victoria and Albert visited their son, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who was attending army manoeuvres near Dublin, and spent a few days holidaying in Killarney. In November, Albert was made aware of gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland.[113] Appalled, he travelled to Cambridge, where his son was studying, to confront him.[114] By the beginning of December, Albert was very unwell.[115] He was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated.[116] She blamed her husband's death on worry over the Prince of Wales's philandering. He had been "killed by that dreadful business", she said.[117] She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances and rarely set foot in London in the following years.[118] Her seclusion earned her the nickname "widow of Windsor".[119] Her weight increased through comfort eating, which reinforced her aversion to public appearances.[120]Victoria's self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement.[121] She did undertake her official government duties, yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle. In March 1864 a protester stuck a notice on the railings of Buckingham Palace that announced "these commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant's declining business".[122] Her uncle Leopold wrote to her advising her to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kensington and take a drive through London in an open carriage.[123]Victoria and John Brown at Balmoral, 1863. Photograph by G. W. Wilson.Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown.[124] Rumours of a romantic connection and even a secret marriage appeared in print, and some referred to the Queen as "Mrs. Brown".[125] The story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer depicting the Queen with Brown was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Victoria published a book, Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, which featured Brown prominently and in which the Queen praised him highly.[126]Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief ministry led by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time since Albert's death.[127] The following year she supported the passing of the Reform Act 1867 which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many urban working men,[128] though she was not in favour of votes for women.[129] Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who charmed Victoria. "Everyone likes flattery," he said, "and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel."[130] With the phrase "we authors, Ma'am", he complimented her.[131] Disraeli's ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone's demeanour far less appealing; he spoke to her, she is thought to have complained, as though she were "a public meeting rather than a woman".[132]In 1870 republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen's seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic.[133] A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria's removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her.[134] In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Lister successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray.[135] In late November 1871, at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die.[136] As the tenth anniversary of her husband's death approached, her son's condition grew no better, and Victoria's distress continued.[137] To general rejoicing, he recovered.[138] Mother and son attended a public parade through London and a grand service of thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral on 27 February 1872, and republican feeling subsided.[139]On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O'Connor, a great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O'Connor, waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria's open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O'Connor was later sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment,[140] and a birching.[141] As a result of the incident, Victoria's popularity recovered further.[142]Empress Wikisource has original text related to this article:Proclamation by the Queen in Council, to the princes, chiefs, and people of IndiaAfter the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides.[143] She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war",[144] and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration".[145] At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.[145]Victoria admired Heinrich von Angeli's 1875 portrait of her for its "honesty, total want of flattery, and appreciation of character".[146]In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported.[147] She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.[148] Disraeli also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876.[149] The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.[150]On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert's death, Victoria's second daughter Alice, who had married Louis of Hesse, died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of the dates as "almost incredible and most mysterious".[151] In May 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and passed her "poor old 60th birthday". She felt "aged" by "the loss of my beloved child".[152]Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin.[153] Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must ... be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere or other, CONTINUALLY."[154] Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so."[155] To Victoria's dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as prime minister.[156] When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by "fast falling tears",[157] and erected a memorial tablet "placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I."[158]Later yearsVictorian farthing, 1884On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems,[159] shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Two schoolboys from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.[160] Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity,[161] but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was "worth being shot at—to see how much one is loved".[162]On 17 March 1883, Victoria fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July; she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter.[163] John Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown.[164] Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had both seen early drafts, advised Victoria against publication, on the grounds that it would stoke the rumours of a love affair.[165] The manuscript was destroyed.[166] In early 1884, Victoria did publish More Leaves from a Journal of a Life in the Highlands, a sequel to her earlier book, which she dedicated to her "devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown".[167] On the day after the first anniversary of Brown's death, Victoria was informed by telegram that her youngest son, Leopold, had died in Cannes. He was "the dearest of my dear sons", she lamented.[168] The following month, Victoria's youngest child, Beatrice, met and fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg at the wedding of Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine to Henry's brother Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry planned to marry, but Victoria opposed the match at first, wishing to keep Beatrice at home to act as her companion. After a year, she was won around to the marriage by their promise to remain living with and attending her.[169]Extent of the British Empire in 1898Victoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated.[170] She thought his government was "the worst I have ever had", and blamed him for the death of General Gordon at Khartoum.[171] Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury's government only lasted a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a "half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man".[172] Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but to Victoria's glee it was defeated.[173] In the ensuing election, Gladstone's party lost to Salisbury's and the government switched hands again.Golden JubileeThe Munshi stands over Victoria as she works at a deskVictoria and the Munshi Abdul KarimIn 1887, the British Empire celebrated the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. She marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey.[174] By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular.[175] Two days later on 23 June,[176] she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching her Urdu and acting as a clerk.[177][178][179] Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus.[180] Equerry Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, "the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do."[181] Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice.[182] Abdul Karim remained in her service until he returned to India with a pension, on her death.[183]Victoria's eldest daughter became empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed a little over three months later, and Victoria's eldest grandchild became German Emperor as Wilhelm II. Victoria and Albert's hopes of a liberal Germany would go unfulfilled, as Wilhelm was a firm believer in autocracy. Victoria thought he had "little heart or Zartgefühl [tact] – and ... his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped [sic]".[184]Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election; he was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchère to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him.[185] In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister.[186] His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign.[187]Diamond JubileeSeated Victoria in embroidered and lace dressVictoria in her official Diamond Jubilee photograph by W. & D. DowneyOn 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in British history. The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee,[188] which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain.[189] The prime ministers of all the self-governing Dominions were invited to London for the festivities.[190] One reason for including the prime ministers of the Dominions and excluding foreign heads of state was to avoid having to invite Victoria's grandson, Wilhelm II of Germany, who, it was feared, might cause trouble at the event.[191]The Queen's Diamond Jubilee procession on 22 June 1897 followed a route six miles long through London and included troops from all over the empire. The procession paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul's Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage, to avoid her having to climb the steps to enter the building. The celebration was marked by vast crowds of spectators and great outpourings of affection for the 78-year-old Queen.[192]Queen Victoria in Dublin, 1900Victoria visited mainland Europe regularly for holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first reigning monarch from Britain to set foot in Spain when she crossed the border for a brief visit.[193] By April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in mainland Europe that her annual trip to France seemed inadvisable. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861, in part to acknowledge the contribution of Irish regiments to the South African war.[194]Death and successionPortrait by Heinrich von Angeli, 1899In July 1900, Victoria's second son, Alfred ("Affie"), died. "Oh, God! My poor darling Affie gone too", she wrote in her journal. "It is a horrible year, nothing but sadness & horrors of one kind & another."[195]Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her disabled, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts.[196] Through early January, she felt "weak and unwell",[197] and by mid-January she was "drowsy ... dazed, [and] confused".[198] She died on 22 January 1901, at half past six in the evening, at the age of 81.[199] Her son and successor, King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II, were at her deathbed.[200] Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turi, was laid upon her deathbed as a last request.[201]Poster proclaiming a day of mourning in Toronto on the day of Victoria's funeralIn 1897, Victoria had written instructions for her funeral, which was to be military as befitting a soldier's daughter and the head of the army,[96] and white instead of black.[202] On 25 January, Edward, Wilhelm, and her third son, Arthur, helped lift her body into the coffin.[203] She was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil.[204] An array of mementos commemorating her extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with her, at her request, by her doctor and dressers. One of Albert's dressing gowns was placed by her side, with a plaster cast of his hand, while a lock of John Brown's hair, along with a picture of him, was placed in her left hand concealed from the view of the family by a carefully positioned bunch of flowers.[96][205] Items of jewellery placed on Victoria included the wedding ring of John Brown's mother, given to her by Brown in 1883.[96] Her funeral was held on Saturday 2 February, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in the Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, at Windsor Great Park.[206]With a reign of 63 years, seven months, and two days, Victoria was the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant in world history, until her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II surpassed her on 9 September 2015.[207] She was the last monarch of Britain from the House of Hanover; her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to her husband's House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.LegacySee also: Cultural depictions of Queen VictoriaVictoria smilingVictoria amused. The remark "We are not amused" is attributed to her but there is no direct evidence that she ever said it,[96][208] and she denied doing so.[209]According to one of her biographers, Giles St Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2,500 words a day during her adult life.[210] From July 1832 until just before her death, she kept a detailed journal, which eventually encompassed 122 volumes.[211] After Victoria's death, her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was appointed her literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the diaries covering Victoria's accession onwards, and burned the originals in the process.[212] Despite this destruction, much of the diaries still exist. In addition to Beatrice's edited copy, Lord Esher transcribed the volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed them.[213] Part of Victoria's extensive correspondence has been published in volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle Buckle, Lord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others.[214]Bronze statue of winged victory mounted on a marble four-sided base with a marble figure on each sideThe Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace was erected as part of the remodelling of the façade of the Palace a decade after her death.Victoria was physically unprepossessing—she was stout, dowdy and only about five feet (1.5 metres) tall—but she succeeded in projecting a grand image.[215] She experienced unpopularity during the first years of her widowhood, but was well liked during the 1880s and 1890s, when she embodied the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure.[216] Only after the release of her diary and letters did the extent of her political influence become known to the wider public.[96][217] Biographies of Victoria written before much of the primary material became available, such as Lytton Strachey's Queen Victoria of 1921, are now considered out of date.[218] The biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired.[219] They, and others, conclude that as a person Victoria was emotional, obstinate, honest, and straight-talking.[220] Contrary to popular belief, her staff and family recorded that Victoria "was immensely amused and roared with laughter" on many occasions.[221]Through Victoria's reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch.[222] In 1867, Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch only retained "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn".[223] As Victoria's monarchy became more symbolic than political, it placed a strong emphasis on morality and family values, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with previous members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. The concept of the "family monarchy", with which the burgeoning middle classes could identify, was solidified.[224]Descendants and haemophiliaVictoria's links with Europe's royal families earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".[225] Of the 42 grandchildren of Victoria and Albert, 34 survived to adulthood. Their living descendants include Elizabeth II; Harald V of Norway; Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden; Margrethe II of Denmark; and Felipe VI of Spain.Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and at least two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia; Alfonso, Prince of Asturias; and Infante Gonzalo of Spain.[226] The presence of the disease in Victoria's descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent, but a haemophiliac.[227] There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria's mother, and as male carriers always had the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill.[228] It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria's father was over 50 at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers.[229] Spontaneous mutations account for about a third of cases.[230]NamesakesThe Victoria Memorial in Kolkata, IndiaAround the world, places and memorials are dedicated to her, especially in the Commonwealth nations. Places named after her include Africa's largest lake, Victoria Falls, the capitals of British Columbia (Victoria) and Saskatchewan (Regina), two Australian states (Victoria and Queensland), and the capital of the island nation of Seychelles.The Victoria Cross was introduced in 1856 to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War,[231] and it remains the highest British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand award for bravery. Victoria Day is a Canadian statutory holiday and a local public holiday in parts of Scotland celebrated on the last Monday before or on 24 May (Queen Victoria's birthday).Titles, styles, honours, and armsTitles and styles 24 May 1819 – 20 June 1837: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901: Her Majesty The QueenAt the end of her reign, the Queen's full style was: "Her Majesty Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India".[232]HonoursBritish honours Royal Family Order of King George IV, 1826[233] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Star of India, 25 June 1861[234] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, 10 February 1862[235] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Crown of India, 1 January 1878[236] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Indian Empire, 1 January 1878[237] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Red Cross, 27 April 1883[238] Founder and Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order, 6 November 1886[239] Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts, 1887[240] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Victorian Order, 23 April 1896[241]Foreign honours Spain: Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa, 21 December 1833[242] Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III[243] Portugal: Dame of the Order of Queen Saint Isabel, 23 February 1836[244] Grand Cross of Our Lady of Conception[243] Russia: Grand Cross of St. Catherine, 26 June 1837[245] France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, 5 September 1843[246] Mexico: Grand Cross of the National Order of Guadalupe, 1854[247] Prussia: Dame of the Order of Louise, 1st Division, 11 June 1857[248] Brazil: Grand Cross of the Order of Pedro I, 3 December 1872[249] Persia:[250] Order of the Sun, 1st Class in Diamonds, 20 June 1873 Order of the August Portrait, 20 June 1873 Siam: Grand Cross of the White Elephant, 1880[251] Dame of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri, 1887[252] Hawaii: Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha I, with Collar, July 1881[253] Serbia:[254][255] Grand Cross of the Cross of Takovo, 1882 Grand Cross of the White Eagle, 1883 Grand Cross of St. Sava, 1897 Hesse and by Rhine: Dame of the Golden Lion, 25 April 1885[256] Bulgaria: Order of the Bulgarian Red Cross, August 1887[257] Ethiopia: Grand Cross of the Seal of Solomon, 22 June 1897 – Diamond Jubilee gift[258] Montenegro: Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I, 1897[259] Saxe-Coburg and Gotha: Silver Wedding Medal of Duke Alfred and Duchess Marie, 23 January 1899[260]ArmsAs Sovereign, Victoria used the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Before her accession, she received no grant of arms. As she could not succeed to the throne of Hanover, her arms did not carry the Hanoverian symbols that were used by her immediate predecessors. Her arms have been borne by all of her successors on the throne.Outside Scotland, the blazon for the shield—also used on the Royal Standard—is: Quarterly: I and IV, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). In Scotland, the first and fourth quarters are occupied by the Scottish lion, and the second by the English lions. The crests, mottoes, and supporters also differ in and outside Scotland.Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom in Scotland (1837-1952).svgRoyal arms (outside Scotland) Royal arms (in Scotland)FamilyVictoria's family in 1846 by Franz Xaver Winterhalter.Left to right: Prince Alfred and the Prince of Wales; the Queen and Prince Albert; Princesses Alice, Helena and Victoria.IssueSee also: Descendants of Queen Victoria and Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IXName Birth Death Spouse and children[232][261]Victoria, Princess Royal 21 November1840 5 August1901 Married 1858, Frederick, later German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831–1888);4 sons (including Wilhelm II, German Emperor), 4 daughters (including Queen Sophia of Greece)Edward VII of the United Kingdom 9 November1841 6 May1910 Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925);3 sons (including King George V of the United Kingdom), 3 daughters (including Queen Maud of Norway)Princess Alice 25 April1843 14 December1878 Married 1862, Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892);2 sons, 5 daughters (including Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia)Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 6 August1844 31 July1900 Married 1874, Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920);2 sons (1 stillborn), 4 daughters (including Queen Marie of Romania)Princess Helena 25 May1846 9 June1923 Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831–1917);4 sons (1 stillborn), 2 daughtersPrincess Louise 18 March1848 3 December1939 Married 1871, John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914);no issuePrince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1 May1850 16 January1942 Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917);1 son, 2 daughters (including Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden)Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany 7 April1853 28 March1884 Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861–1922);1 son, 1 daughterPrincess Beatrice 14 April1857 26 October1944 Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858–1896);3 sons, 1 daughter (Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain)AncestryAncestors of Queen Victoria[262]Family tree   Red borders indicate British monarchs     Bold borders indicate children of British monarchsFamily of Queen Victoria, spanning the reigns of her grandfather, George III, to her grandson, George VNotesHer godparents were Tsar Alexander I of Russia (represented by her uncle Frederick, Duke of York), her uncle George, Prince Regent, her aunt Queen Charlotte of Württemberg (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Augusta) and Victoria's maternal grandmother the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh). Under section 2 of the Regency Act 1830, the Accession Council's proclamation declared Victoria as the King's successor "saving the rights of any issue of His late Majesty King William the Fourth which may be borne of his late Majesty's Consort". "No. 19509". The London Gazette. 20 June 1837. p. 1581.ReferencesCitationsHibbert, pp. 3–12; Strachey, pp. 1–17; Woodham-Smith, pp. 15–29Hibbert, pp. 12–13; Longford, p. 23; Woodham-Smith, pp. 34–35Longford, p. 24Worsley, p. 41.Hibbert, p. 31; St Aubyn, p. 26; Woodham-Smith, p. 81Hibbert, p. 46; Longford, p. 54; St Aubyn, p. 50; Waller, p. 344; Woodham-Smith, p. 126Hibbert, p. 19; Marshall, p. 25Hibbert, p. 27; Longford, pp. 35–38, 118–119; St Aubyn, pp. 21–22; Woodham-Smith, pp. 70–72. 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Archived 9 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine"Silver Wedding medal of Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg & Grand Duchess Marie", Royal Collection, archived from the original on 12 December 2019, retrieved 12 December 2019Whitaker's Almanack (1993) Concise Edition, London: J. Whitaker and Sons, ISBN 0-85021-232-4, pp. 134–136 Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1999), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, London: Little, Brown, p. 34, ISBN 978-1-85605-469-0Bibliography Charles, Barrie (2012), Kill the Queen! The Eight Assassination Attempts on Queen Victoria, Stroud: Amberley Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4456-0457-2 Hibbert, Christopher (2000), Queen Victoria: A Personal History, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-638843-4 Longford, Elizabeth (1964), Victoria R.I., London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-17001-5 Marshall, Dorothy (1972), The Life and Times of Queen Victoria (1992 reprint ed.), London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-83166-6 Packard, Jerrold M. (1998), Victoria's Daughters, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-24496-7 Potts, D. M.; Potts, W. T. W. (1995), Queen Victoria's Gene: Haemophilia and the Royal Family, Stroud: Alan Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-1199-9 St. Aubyn, Giles (1991), Queen Victoria: A Portrait, London: Sinclair-Stevenson, ISBN 1-85619-086-2 Strachey, Lytton (1921), Queen Victoria, London: Chatto and Windus Waller, Maureen (2006), Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-6628-2 Weintraub, Stanley (1997), Albert: Uncrowned King, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-5756-9 Woodham-Smith, Cecil (1972), Queen Victoria: Her Life and Times 1819–1861, London: Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 0-241-02200-2 Worsley, Lucy (2018), Queen Victoria – Daughter, Wife, Mother, Widow, London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, ISBN 978-1-4736-5138-8Primary sources Benson, A. C.; Esher, Viscount, eds. (1907), The Letters of Queen Victoria: A Selection of Her Majesty's Correspondence Between the Years 1837 and 1861, London: John Murray Bolitho, Hector, ed. (1938), Letters of Queen Victoria from the Archives of the House of Brandenburg-Prussia, London: Thornton Butterworth Buckle, George Earle, ed. (1926), The Letters of Queen Victoria, 2nd Series 1862–1885, London: John Murray Buckle, George Earle, ed. (1930), The Letters of Queen Victoria, 3rd Series 1886–1901, London: John Murray Connell, Brian (1962), Regina v. Palmerston: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and her Foreign and Prime Minister, 1837–1865, London: Evans Brothers Duff, David, ed. (1968), Victoria in the Highlands: The Personal Journal of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, London: Muller Dyson, Hope; Tennyson, Charles, eds. (1969), Dear and Honoured Lady: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and Alfred Tennyson, London: Macmillan Esher, Viscount, ed. (1912), The Girlhood of Queen Victoria: A Selection from Her Majesty's Diaries Between the Years 1832 and 1840, London: John Murray Fulford, Roger, ed. (1964), Dearest Child: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Princess Royal, 1858–1861, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1968), Dearest Mama: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1861–1864, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1971), Beloved Mama: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess, 1878–1885, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1971), Your Dear Letter: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1863–1871, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1976), Darling Child: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess of Prussia, 1871–1878, London: Evans Brothers Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1984), Queen Victoria in Her Letters and Journals, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-4107-7 Hough, Richard, ed. (1975), Advice to a Grand-daughter: Letters from Queen Victoria to Princess Victoria of Hesse, London: Heinemann, ISBN 0-434-34861-9 Jagow, Kurt, ed. (1938), Letters of the Prince Consort 1831–1861, London: John Murray Mortimer, Raymond, ed. (1961), Queen Victoria: Leaves from a Journal, New York: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy Ponsonby, Frederick, ed. (1930), Letters of the Empress Frederick, London: Macmillan Ramm, Agatha, ed. (1990), Beloved and Darling Child: Last Letters between Queen Victoria and Her Eldest Daughter, 1886–1901, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, ISBN 978-0-86299-880-6 Victoria, Queen (1868), Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1848 to 1861, London: Smith, Elder Victoria, Queen (1884), More Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1862 to 1882, London: Smith, ElderFurther reading Arnstein, Walter L. (2003), Queen Victoria, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-333-63806-4 Baird, Julia (2016), Victoria The Queen: An Intimate Biography of the Woman Who Ruled an Empire, New York: Random House, ISBN 978-1-4000-6988-0 Cadbury, Deborah (2017), Queen Victoria's Matchmaking: The Royal Marriages That Shaped Europe, Bloomsbury Carter, Sarah; Nugent, Maria Nugent, eds. (2016), Mistress of everything: Queen Victoria in Indigenous worlds, Manchester University Press Eyck, Frank (1959), The Prince Consort: a political biography, Chatto Gardiner, Juliet (1997), Queen Victoria, London: Collins and Brown, ISBN 978-1-85585-469-7 Homans, Margaret; Munich, Adrienne, eds. (1997), Remaking Queen Victoria, Cambridge University Press Homans, Margaret (1997), Royal Representations: Queen Victoria and British Culture, 1837–1876 Hough, Richard (1996), Victoria and Albert, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-30385-3 James, Robert Rhodes (1983), Albert, Prince Consort: A Biography, Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 9780394407630 Kingsley Kent, Susan (2015), Queen Victoria: Gender and Empire Lyden, Anne M. (2014), A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography, Los Angeles: Getty Publications, ISBN 978-1-60606-155-8 Ridley, Jane (2015), Victoria: Queen, Matriarch, Empress, Penguin Taylor, Miles (2020), "The Bicentenary of Queen Victoria", Journal of British Studies, 59: 121–135, doi:10.1017/jbr.2019.245, S2CID 213433777 Weintraub, Stanley (1987), Victoria: Biography of a Queen, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 978-0-04-923084-2 Wilson, A. N. (2014), Victoria: A Life, London: Atlantic Books, ISBN 978-1-84887-956-0External linksListen to this article (1 hour and 2 minutes)1:01:53Spoken Wikipedia iconThis audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 20 July 2014, and does not reflect subsequent edits.(Audio help · More spoken articles)Queen Victoriaat Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata Portraits of Queen Victoria at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at Wikidata Queen Victoria's Journals, online from the Royal Archive and Bodleian Library Works by Queen Victoria at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Queen Victoria at Internet Archive Works by Queen Victoria at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Newspaper clippings about Queen Victoria in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBWQueen VictoriaHouse of HanoverCadet branch of the House of WelfBorn: 24 May 1819 Died: 22 January 1901Regnal titlesPreceded byWilliam IV Queen of the United Kingdom20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Succeeded byEdward VIIVacantTitle last held byBahadur Shah IIas Mughal emperor Empress of India1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 vteQueen VictoriaEvents Coronation Honours Hackpen White Horse Wedding Wedding dress Golden Jubilee Honours Medal Police Medal Clock Tower, Weymouth Clock Tower, Brighton Bust Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition Diamond Jubilee Honours Medal Jubilee Diamond Jubilee Tower Cherries jubilee Recessional (poem) Cunningham Clock Tower Devonshire House BallReign Bedchamber crisis Prime Ministers Edward Oxford Empress of India John William Bean Victorian era Victorian morality Visits to Manchester Foreign visits State funeral MausoleumFamily Albert, Prince Consort (husband) Victoria, Princess Royal (daughter) Edward VII (son) Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (daughter) Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (son) Princess Helena of the United Kingdom (daughter) Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (daughter) Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (son) Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany (son) Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (daughter) Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (father) Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (mother) Descendants Royal descendants Princess Feodora of Leiningen (half-sister) Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen (half-brother)Early life Kensington System John Conroy Victoire Conroy Louise Lehzen Lady Flora Hastings Charlotte Percy George Davys LegitimacyHonours Places Empire Day Royal Family Order Victoria Day Victoria Day (Scotland) Victoria Cross Victoria (plant)DepictionsFilm Sixty Years a Queen (1913) Victoria in Dover (1936) Victoria the Great (1937) Sixty Glorious Years (1938) Victoria in Dover (1954) Mrs Brown (1997) The Young Victoria (2009) Victoria & Abdul (2017) The Black Prince (2017) Dolittle (2020)Television Happy and Glorious (1952) Victoria Regina (1961) The Young Victoria (1963) Victoria & Albert (2001) Looking for Victoria (2003) Royal Upstairs Downstairs (2011) Victoria (2016–2019)Stage Victoria and Merrie England (1897) Victoria Regina (1934) I and Albert (1972)Statues andMemorials List of statues London Memorial Statue Square Leeds St Helens Lancaster Bristol Weymouth Chester Reading Liverpool Birmingham Birkenhead Dundee Balmoral cairns Guernsey Isle of Man Valletta Statue Gate Winnipeg Montreal Square Victoria, British Columbia Toronto Regina Bangalore Hong Kong Kolkata Visakhapatnam Penang Sydney Building Square Adelaide Brisbane Melbourne ChristchurchPoetry "The Widow at Windsor" (1892) "Recessional" (1897)Songs Victoria Choral SongsStampsBritish Penny Black VR official Penny Blue Two penny blue Penny Red Embossed stamps Halfpenny Rose Red Three Halfpence Red Penny Venetian Red Penny Lilac Lilac and Green Issue Jubilee IssueColonial Chalon head Canada 12d black Canada 2c Large Queen Ceylon Dull Rose India Inverted Head 4 annas Malta Halfpenny Yellow Mauritius "Post Office" stampsRelated Osborne House Queen Victoria's journals John Brown Abdul Karim Pets Dash Diamond Crown vteEnglish, Scottish and British monarchsMonarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund Ironside Cnut Harold I Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret John Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James I and VI Charles I Charles II James II and VII William III and II and Mary II Anne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vteBritish princessesThe generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used.1st generation Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia2nd generation Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange Princess Amelia Princess Caroline Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway3rd generation Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick Princess Elizabeth Princess Louisa Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway4th generation Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg Princess Augusta Sophia Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Princess Sophia Princess Amelia Princess Sophia of Gloucester Princess Caroline of Gloucester5th generation Princess Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Queen Victoria Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck6th generation Victoria, Princess Royal and German Empress Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Princess Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie of Hanover7th generation Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife Princess Victoria Maud, Queen of Norway Marie, Queen of Romania Grand Duchess Victoria Feodorovna of Russia Princess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Beatrice, Duchess of Galliera Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden Princess Patricia, Lady Patricia Ramsay Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone Princess Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga of Hanover8th generation Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk Princess Sibylla, Duchess of Västerbotten Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Frederica, Queen of Greece9th generation Queen Elizabeth II Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy10th generation Anne, Princess Royal11th generation Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi Princess Eugenie, Mrs Jack Brooksbank Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor112th generation Princess Charlotte of Cambridge1 Status debatable; see her article. vteHanoverian princesses by birthGenerations are numbered by descent from the first King of Hanover, George III.1st generation Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg Princess Augusta Sophia Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Princess Sophia Princess Amelia2nd generation Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Charlotte of Clarence Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck3rd generation Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie4th generation Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga5th generation Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes6th generation Princess Marie, Countess von Hochberg Princess Olga Princess Alexandra, Princess of Leiningen Princess Friederike7th generation Princess Alexandra Princess Eugenia8th generation Princess Elisabeth Princess Eleonora Princess SofiaAuthority control Edit this at WikidataGeneral ISNI 1 VIAF 1 WorldCatNational libraries Norway Spain France (data) Catalonia Germany Italy Israel United States Latvia Japan Czech Republic Australia Greece Korea Croatia Netherlands Poland Sweden VaticanArt galleries and museums Victoria Te Papa (New Zealand)Art research institutes RKD Artists (Netherlands) Artist Names (Getty)Biographical dictionaries GermanyScientific databases CiNii (Japan)Other Faceted Application of Subject Terminology MusicBrainz artist 2 National Archives (US) RISM (France) 1 Social Networks and Archival Context 2 SUDOC (France) 1 Trove (Australia) 1Categories: Queen Victoria1819 births1901 deathsMonarchs of the United KingdomMonarchs of the Isle of ManHeads of state of CanadaMonarchs of AustraliaHeads of state of New ZealandQueens regnant in the British Isles19th-century British monarchs20th-century British monarchsHouse of HanoverHanoverian princessesHouse of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (United Kingdom)Empresses regnantIndian empressesBritish princesses19th-century diaristsBritish diaristsFounders of English schools and collegesPeople associated with the Royal National College for the BlindPeople from KensingtonBritish people of German descentFemale critics of feminismKnights Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila ViçosaDames of the Order of Saint IsabelGrand Croix of the Légion d'honneurGrand Crosses of the Order of St. SavaRecipients of the Order of the Cross of TakovoThe standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom, British Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories is denominated in pennies and pounds sterling (symbol "£"), and ranges in value from one penny sterling to two pounds. Since decimalisation, on 15 February 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 (new) pence. Before decimalisation, twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound.British coins are minted by the Royal Mint in Llantrisant, Wales. The Royal Mint also commissions the coins' designs.In addition to the circulating coinage, the UK also mints commemorative decimal coins (crowns) in the denomination of five pounds. Ceremonial Maundy money and bullion coinage of gold sovereigns, half sovereigns, and gold and silver Britannia coins are also produced. Some territories outside the United Kingdom, which use the pound sterling, produce their own coinage, with the same denominations and specifications as the UK coinage but with local designs.Currently circulating coinageThe current decimal coins consist of one penny and two pence in copper-plated steel, five pence and ten pence in nickel-plated steel, equilateral curve heptagonal twenty pence and fifty pence in cupronickel, and bimetallic one pound and two pound. All circulating coins have an effigy of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse, and various national and regional designs, and the denomination, on the reverse. All current coins carry an abbreviated Latin inscription whose full form, ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATRIX, translates to "Elizabeth II, by the grace of God, Queen and Defender of the Faith".Denomination Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge IntroducedOne penny Queen Elizabeth II Crowned portcullis with chains (1971–2008)Segment of the Royal Arms (2008–present) 20.3 mm 1.52 mm 3.56 g Bronze (97% copper, 2.5% zinc, 0.5% tin) Smooth 19711.65 mm Copper-plated steel 1992Two pence Plume of ostrich feathers within a coronet (1971–2008)Segment of the Royal Arms (2008–present) 25.9 mm 1.85 mm 7.12 g Bronze 19712.03 mm Copper-plated steel 1992Five pence[a] Queen Elizabeth II Crowned thistle (1968–2008)Segment of the Royal Arms (2008–present) 18 mm 1.7 mm 3.25 g Cupronickel (3:1) Milled 19901.89 mm Nickel-plated steel 2012Ten pence[a] Crowned lion (1968–2008)Segment of the Royal Arms (2008–present) 24.5 mm 1.85 mm 6.5 g Cupronickel (3:1) 19922.05 mm Nickel-plated steel 2012Twenty pence Crowned Tudor Rose 21.4 mm 1.7 mm 5 g Cupronickel (5:1) Smooth, Reuleaux heptagon 1982Segment of the Royal Arms 2008Fifty pence[a] Britannia and lion 27.3 mm 1.78 mm 8 g Cupronickel (3:1) Smooth, Reuleaux heptagon 1997Various commemorative designs 1998Segment of the Royal Arms 2008One pound Queen Elizabeth II Rose, leek, thistle, and shamrock encircled by a coronet 23.03–23.43 mm 2.8 mm 8.75 g Inner: Nickel-plated alloyOuter: Nickel-brass Alternately milled and plain (12-sided) 28 March 2017[1]Two pounds[b] Abstract concentric design representing technological development 28.4 mm 2.5 mm 12 g Inner: CupronickelOuter: Nickel-brass Milled with variable inscription and/or decoration 1997 (issued 1998)Various commemorative designs 1999Britannia 2015The specifications and dates of introduction of the 5p, 10p, and 50p coins refer to the current versions. These coins were originally issued in larger sizes in 1968 and 1969 respectively. This coin was originally issued in a smaller size in a single metal in 1986 for special issues only. It was redesigned as a bi-metallic issue for general circulation in 1997.Production and distributionAll genuine UK coins are produced by the Royal Mint. The same coinage is used across the United Kingdom: unlike banknotes, local issues of coins are not produced for different parts of the UK. The pound coin until 2016 was produced in regional designs, but these circulate equally in all parts of the UK (see UK designs, below).Every year, newly minted coins are checked for size, weight, and composition at a Trial of the Pyx. Essentially the same procedure has been used since the 13th century. Assaying is now done by the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths on behalf of HM Treasury.The 1p and 2p coins from 1971 are the oldest standard-issue coins still in circulation. Pre-decimal crowns are the oldest coins in general that are still legal tender, although they are in practice never encountered in general circulation.[2]Coins from the British dependencies and territories that use sterling as their currency are sometimes found in change in other jurisdictions. Strictly, they are not legal tender in the United Kingdom; however, since they have the same specifications as UK coins, they are sometimes tolerated in commerce, and can readily be used in vending machines.UK-issued coins are, on the other hand, generally fully accepted and freely mixed in other British dependencies and territories that use the pound.An extensive coinage redesign was commissioned by the Royal Mint in 2005, and new designs were gradually introduced into the circulating British coinage from summer 2008. Except for the £1 coin, the pre-2008 coins remain legal tender and are expected to stay in circulation for the foreseeable future.The estimated volume in circulation as at March 2016 is:[3]Denomination Number ofpieces(millions) Face value(£m)Two pounds 479 957.036One pound 1,671 1,671.328Fifty pence 1,053 526.153Twenty-five pence 81 20Twenty pence 3,004 600.828Ten pence 1,713 171.312Five pence 4,075 203.764Two pence 6,714 134.273One penny 11,430 114.299Total 30,139 4,643.658History of pre-decimal coinageThe penny before 1500See also: Penny (English coin) and Scottish coinageThe English silver penny first appeared in the 8th century CE in adoption of Western Europe's Carolingian monetary system wherein 12 pence made a shilling and 20 shillings made a pound. The weight of the English penny was fixed at 22+1⁄2 troy grains (about 1.46 grams) by Offa of Mercia, an 8th-century contemporary of Charlemagne; 240 pennies weighed 5,400 grains or a tower pound (different from the troy pound of 5,760 grains). The silver penny was the only coin minted for 500 years, from c. 780 to 1280.From the time of Charlemagne until the 12th century, the silver currency of England was made from the highest purity silver available. But there were disadvantages to minting currency of fine silver, notably the level of wear it suffered, and the ease with which coins could be "clipped", or trimmed. In 1158 a new standard for English coinage was established by Henry II with the "Tealby Penny" — the sterling silver standard of 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper. This was a harder-wearing alloy, yet it was still a rather high grade of silver. It went some way towards discouraging the practice of "clipping", though this practice was further discouraged and largely eliminated with the introduction of the milled edge seen on coins today.The weight of a silver penny stayed constant at above 22 grains until 1344; afterwards its weight was reduced to 18 grains in 1351, to 15 grains in 1412, to 12 grains in 1464, and to 101⁄2 grains in 1527.The history of the Royal Mint stretches back to AD 886.[4] For many centuries production was in London, initially at the Tower of London, and then at premises nearby in Tower Hill in what is today known as Royal Mint Court. In the 1970s production was transferred to Llantrisant in South Wales.[5] Historically Scotland and England had separate coinage; the last Scottish coins were struck in 1709 shortly after union with England.[6]The penny after 1500During the reign of Henry VIII, the silver content was gradually debased, reaching a low of one-third silver. However, in Edward VI's reign in 1551, this debased coinage was discontinued in favor of a return to sterling silver with the penny weighing 8 grains. The first crowns and half-crowns were produced that year. From this point onwards till 1920, sterling was the rule.Coins were originally hand-hammered — an ancient technique in which two dies are struck together with a blank coin between them. This was the traditional method of manufacturing coins in the Western world from the classical Greek era onwards, in contrast with Asia, where coins were traditionally cast. Milled (that is, machine-made) coins were produced first during the reign of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) and periodically during the subsequent reigns of James I and Charles I, but there was initially opposition to mechanisation from the moneyers, who ensured that most coins continued to be produced by hammering. All British coins produced since 1662 have been milled.By 1601 it was decreed that one troy ounce or 480 grains of sterling silver be minted into 62 pennies (i.e. each penny weighed 7.742 grains). By 1696, the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping during the Nine Years' War[7] to the extent that it was decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation.[8] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement,[9] but was saved by the personal intervention of Isaac Newton after his appointment as Warden of the Mint, a post which was intended to be a sinecure, but which he took seriously.[8] Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, Newton used his previous experience to direct the 1707–1710 Scottish recoinage, resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain. After 15 September 1709 no further silver coins were ever struck in Scotland.[10]As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[11] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717, forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings.[12] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this unintentionally resulted in a silver shortage, as silver coins were used to pay for imports, while exports were paid for in gold, effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard, rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation.The coinage reform of 1816 set up a weight/value ratio and physical sizes for silver coins. Each troy ounce of sterling silver was henceforth minted into 66 pence or 51⁄2 shillings.In 1920, the silver content of all British coins was reduced from 92.5% to 50%, with some of the remainder consisting of manganese, which caused the coins to tarnish to a very dark colour after they had been in circulation for long. Silver was eliminated altogether in 1947, except for Maundy coinage, which returned to the pre-1920 92.5% silver composition.The 1816 weight/value ratio and size system survived the debasement of silver in 1920, and the adoption of token coins of cupronickel in 1947. It even persisted after decimalisation for those coins which had equivalents and continued to be minted with their values in new pence. The UK finally abandoned it in 1992 when smaller, more convenient, "silver" coins were introduced.History of decimal coinageDecimalisationSince decimalisation on 15 February 1971 the pound (symbol "£") has been divided into 100 pence. (Prior to decimalisation the pound was divided into 20 shillings, each of 12 [old] pence; thus, there were 240 [old] pence to the pound). The pound remained as Britain's currency unit after decimalisation (unlike in many other British commonwealth countries, which dropped the pound upon decimalisation by introducing dollars or new units worth 10 shillings or 1⁄2 pound). The following coins were introduced with these reverse designs: Half penny, 1971–1984: A crown, symbolising the monarch. One penny, 1971–2007: A crowned portcullis with chains (the badge of the Houses of Parliament). Two pence, 1971–2007: The Prince of Wales's feathers: a plume of ostrich feathers within a coronet. Five pence, 1968–2007: The Badge of Scotland, a thistle royally crowned. Ten pence, 1968–2007: The lion of England royally crowned. Fifty pence, 1969–2007: Britannia and lion.The first decimal coins – the five pence (5p) and ten pence (10p) — were introduced in 1968 in the run-up to decimalisation in order to familiarise the public with the new system. These initially circulated alongside the pre-decimal coinage and had the same size and value as the existing one shilling and two shilling coins respectively. The fifty pence (50p) coin followed in 1969, replacing the old ten shilling note. The remaining decimal coins – at the time, the half penny (1⁄2p), penny (1p) and two pence (2p) — were issued in 1971 at decimalisation. A quarter-penny coin, to be struck in aluminium, was proposed at the time decimalisation was being planned, but was never minted.The new coins were initially marked with the wording NEW PENNY (singular) or NEW PENCE (plural). The word "new" was dropped in 1982. The symbol "p" was adopted to distinguish the new pennies from the old, which used the symbol "d" (from the Latin denarius, a coin used in the Roman Empire).Updates 1982–1998In the years since decimalisation, a number of changes have been made to the coinage; these new denominations were introduced with the following designs: Twenty pence, 1982–2007: A crowned Tudor Rose, a traditional heraldic emblem of England (NB With incuse design and lettering). One pound, 1983–2016: various designs; see One pound (British coin). Two pounds, 1997–2014: An abstract design of concentric circles, representing technological development from the Iron Age to the modern day electronic age.Additionally: The halfpenny was discontinued in 1984. The composition of the 1p and 2p was changed in 1992 from bronze to copper-plated steel without changing the design. The sizes of the 5p, 10p and 50p coins were reduced in 1990, 1992 and 1997, respectively, also without changing the design.The twenty pence (20p) coin was introduced in 1982 to fill the gap between the 10p and 50p coins. The pound coin (£1) was introduced in 1983 to replace the Bank of England £1 banknote which was discontinued in 1984 (although the Scottish banks continued producing them for some time afterwards; the last of them, the Royal Bank of Scotland £1 note, is still issued in a small volume as of 2021). The designs on the £1 coin changed annually in a largely five-year cycle, until the introduction of the new 12-sided £1 coin in 2017.The decimal halfpenny coin was demonetised in 1984 as its value was by then too small to be useful. The pre-decimal sixpence, shilling and two shilling coins, which had continued to circulate alongside the decimal coinage with values of 2+1⁄2p, 5p and 10p respectively, were finally withdrawn in 1980, 1990 and 1993 respectively. The double florin and crown, with values of 20p and 25p respectively, have technically not been withdrawn, but in practice are never seen in general circulation.In the 1990s, the Royal Mint reduced the sizes of the 5p, 10p, and 50p coins. As a consequence, the oldest 5p coins in circulation date from 1990, the oldest 10p coins from 1992 and the oldest 50p coins come from 1997. Since 1997, many special commemorative designs of 50p have been issued. Some of these are found fairly frequently in circulation and some are rare. They are all legal tender.In 1992 the composition of the 1p and 2p coins was changed from bronze to copper-plated steel. Due to their high copper content (97%), the intrinsic value of pre-1992 1p and 2p coins increased with the surge in metal prices of the mid-2000s, until by 2006 the coins would, if melted down, have been worth about 50% more than their face value.[13] (To do this, however, would be illegal, and they would have had to be melted in huge quantities, using quite a bit of energy, to achieve significant gain.) In later years, the price of copper fell considerably.[citation needed]A circulating bimetallic two pound (£2) coin was introduced in 1998 (first minted in, and dated, 1997). There had previously been unimetallic commemorative £2 coins which did not normally circulate. This tendency to use the two pound coin for commemorative issues has continued since the introduction of the bimetallic coin, and a few of the older unimetallic coins have since entered circulation.There are also commemorative issues of crowns. Until 1981, these had a face value of twenty-five pence (25p), equivalent to the five shilling crown used in pre-decimal Britain. However, in 1990 crowns were redenominated with a face value of five pounds (£5)[14] as the previous value was considered not sufficient for such a high-status coin. The size and weight of the coin remained exactly the same. Decimal crowns are generally not found in circulation as their market value is likely to be higher than their face value, but they remain legal tender.Obverse designsAll modern British coins feature a profile of the current monarch's head on the obverse. There has been only one monarch since decimalisation, Queen Elizabeth II, so her head appears on all decimal coins, facing to the right (see also Monarch's head, above). However, five different effigies have been used, reflecting the Queen's changing appearance as she has aged. These are the effigies by Mary Gillick (until 1968), Arnold Machin (1968–1984), Raphael Maklouf (1985–1997), Ian Rank-Broadley (1998–2015), and Jody Clark (from 2015).[15]All current coins carry a Latin inscription whose full form is ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATRIX, meaning "Elizabeth II, by the grace of God, Queen and Defender of the Faith". The inscription appears on the coins in any of several abbreviated forms, typically ELIZABETH II D G REG F D.2008 redesignIn 2008, UK coins underwent an extensive redesign which eventually changed the reverse designs of all coins, the first wholesale change to British coinage since the first decimal coins were introduced in April 1968.[16] The major design feature was the introduction of a reverse design shared across six coins (1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p, 50p), that can be pieced together to form an image of the Royal Shield. This was the first time a coin design had been featured across multiple coins in this way.[16]To summarize the reverse design changes made in 2008 and afterwards: The 1p coin depicts the lower part of the first quarter and the upper part of the third quarter of the shield, showing the lions passant of England and the harp of Ireland respectively The 2p coin depicts most of the second quarter of the shield, showing the lion rampant of Scotland The 5p coin depicts the centre of the shield, showing the meeting and parts of the constituent parts of the shield The 10p coin depicts most of the first quarter of the shield, containing the three lions passant of England The 20p coin depicts the lower part of the second quarter and upper part of the fourth quarter, showing the lion rampant of Scotland and the lions passant of England respectively The 50p coin depicts the point of the shield and the bottom portions of the second and third quarters showing the harp of Ireland and lions passant of England respectively The round, nickel-brass £1 coin from 2008–2016 depicted the whole of the Royal Shield. From 2017 it was changed to a bimetallic 12-sided coin depicting a rose, leek, thistle and shamrock bound by a crown. The £2 coin from 2015 depicts Britannia.The original intention was to exclude both the £1 and £2 coins from the redesign because they were "relatively new additions" to the coinage, but it was later decided to include a £1 coin with a complete Royal Shield design from 2008 to 2016,[17] and the 2015 redesign of the £2 coin occurred due to complaints over the disappearance of Britannia's image from the 50p coin in 2008.[18]On all coins, the beading (ring of small dots) around the edge of the obverses has been removed. The obverse of the 20p coin has also been amended to incorporate the year, which had been on the reverse of the coin since its introduction in 1982 (giving rise to an unusual issue of a mule version without any date at all). The orientation of both sides of the 50p coin has been rotated through 180 degrees, meaning the bottom of the coin is now a corner rather than a flat edge. The numerals showing the decimal value of each coin, previously present on all coins except the £1 and £2, have been removed, leaving the values spelled out in words only.The redesign was the result of a competition launched by the Royal Mint in August 2005, which closed on 14 November 2005. The competition was open to the public and received over 4,000 entries.[16] The winning entry was unveiled on 2 April 2008, designed by Matthew Dent.[16] The Royal Mint stated the new designs were "reflecting a twenty-first century Britain". An advisor to the Royal Mint described the new coins as "post-modern" and said that this was something that could not have been done 50 years previously.[19]The redesign was criticised by some for having no specifically Welsh symbol (such as the Welsh Dragon), because the Royal Shield does not include a specifically Welsh symbol. Wrexham Member of Parliament (MP) Ian Lucas, who was also campaigning to have the Welsh Dragon included on the Union Flag, called the omission "disappointing", and stated that he would be writing to the Queen to request that the Royal Standard be changed to include Wales.[20] The Royal Mint stated that "the Shield of the Royal Arms is symbolic of the whole of the United Kingdom and as such, represents Wales, Scotland, England and Northern Ireland."[20] Designer Dent stated "I am a Welshman and proud of it, but I never thought about the fact we did not have a dragon or another representation of Wales on the design because as far as I am concerned Wales is represented on the Royal Arms. This was never an issue for me."[20]The Royal Mint's choice of an inexperienced coin designer to produce the new coinage was criticised by Virginia Ironside, daughter of Christopher Ironside who designed the previous UK coins. She stated that the new designs were "totally unworkable as actual coins", due to the loss of a numerical currency identifier, and the smaller typeface used.[21]The German news magazine Der Spiegel claimed that the redesign signalled the UK's intention "not to join the euro any time soon".[22]Changes after 2008As of 2012, 5p and 10p coins have been issued in nickel-plated steel, and much of the remaining cupronickel types withdrawn, in order to retrieve more expensive metals. The new coins are 11% thicker to maintain the same weight.[23][24] There are heightened nickel allergy concerns over the new coins. Studies commissioned by the Royal Mint found no increased discharge of nickel from the coins when immersed in artificial sweat. However, an independent study found that the friction from handling results in four times as much nickel exposure as from the older-style coins. Sweden already plans to desist from using nickel in coins from 2015.[25]In 2016, the £1 coin's composition was changed from a single-metal round shape to a 12-sided bi-metal design, with a slightly larger diameter, and with multiple past designs discontinued in favor of a single, unchanging design. Production of the new coins started in 2016,[26] with the first, dated 2016, entering circulation 28 March 2017.[27]In February 2015, the Royal Mint announced a new design for the £2 coin featuring Britannia by Antony Dufort, with no change to its bimetallic composition.[28]Edge inscriptions on British coins used to be commonly encountered on round £1 coins of 1983–2016, but are nowadays found only on £2 coins. The standard-issue £2 coin from 1997 to 2015 carried the edge inscription STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS. The redesigned coin since 2015 has a new edge inscription QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO, Latin for "I will claim the four seas", an inscription previously found on coins bearing the image of Britannia. Other commemorative £2 coins have their own unique edge inscriptions or designs.Obsolete denominationsThe following decimal coins have been withdrawn from circulation and have ceased to be legal tender.Denomination Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Introduced WithdrawnHalf Penny Queen Elizabeth II St Edward's Crown 17.4 mm 1 mm 1.78 g Bronze Smooth 1971 1984Five pence* Queen Elizabeth II Crowned Thistle 23.59 mm 1.7 mm 5.65 g Cupronickel Milled 1968 1990Ten pence* Crowned Lion 28.5 mm 1.85 mm 11.31 g 1992Fifty pence* Seated Britannia alongside a Lion 30.0 mm 2.5 mm 13.5 g Smooth, Reuleaux heptagon 1969 1997Various commemorative designs 1973One Pound† Queen Elizabeth II Numerous different designs 22.5 mm 3.15 mm 9.5 g Nickel-brass Milled with variable inscription and/or decoration 1983 15 October 2017Royal Shield 2008Two pounds No standard reverse design 28.4 mm ~3 mm 15.98 g Nickel-brass 1986 1998* The specifications and dates of 5p, 10p, and 50p coins refer to the larger sizes issued since 1968.† The specification refers to the round coin issued from 1983–2016. Although obsolete, this coin is still redeemable at banks and the British railway systems, and is still legal tender on the Isle of Man.Commemorative issuesCirculating commemorative designsCirculating fifty pence and two pound coins have been issued with various commemorative reverse designs, typically to mark the anniversaries of historical events or the births of notable people.Three commemorative designs were issued of the large version of the 50p: in 1973 (the EEC), 1992–3 (EC presidency) and 1994 (D-Day anniversary). Commemorative designs of the smaller 50p coin have been issued (alongside the Britannia standard issue) in 1998 (two designs), 2000, and from 2003 to 2007 yearly (two designs in 2006). For a complete list, see Fifty pence (British decimal coin).Prior to 1997, the two pound coin was minted in commemorative issues only – in 1986, 1989, 1994, 1995 and 1996. Commemorative £2 coins have been regularly issued since 1999, alongside the standard-issue bi-metallic coins which were introduced in 1997. One or two designs have been minted each year, with the exception of none in 2000, and four regional 2002 issues marking the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester. As well as a distinct reverse design, these coins have an edge inscription relevant to the subject. The anniversary themes are continued until at least 2009, with two designs announced. For a complete list, see Two pounds (British decimal coin).From 2018–2019 a series of 10p coins with 26 different designs was put in circulation "celebrating Great Britain with The Royal Mint’s Quintessentially British A to Z series of coins".[29]Non-circulating denominations1981 commemorative twenty-five pence coin, celebrating the marriage of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer.The following are special-issue commemorative coins, seldom encountered in normal circulation due to their precious metal content or collectible value, but are still considered legal tender. Twenty-five pence or crown (25p; £0.25), 1972–1981 Five pounds or crown (£5), 1990–present [1] Twenty pounds (£20), 2013–present Fifty pounds (£50), 2015–2016 One hundred pounds (£100), 2015–2016Denomination Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Introduced25 pence Queen Elizabeth II No standard reverse design 38.61 mm 2.89 mm 28.28 g Cupronickel or silver Milled, with variable inscription 19725 pounds 199020 pounds 27.0 mm Unknown 15.71 g Silver Milled 201350 pounds Britannia 34.0 mm 31 g 2015100 pounds Elizabeth Tower 'Big Ben' 40.0 mm 62.86 gLegal tender status of commemorative coinsThe prolific issuance since 2013 of silver commemorative £20, £50 and £100 coins at face value has led to attempts to spend or deposit these coins, prompting the Royal Mint to clarify the legal tender status of these silver coins as well as the cupronickel £5 coin.[30][31][32] Royal Mint guidelines advise that, although these coins were approved as legal tender, they are considered limited edition collectables not intended for general circulation, and hence shops and banks are not obliged to accept them.Maundy moneyMaundy money is a ceremonial coinage traditionally given to the poor, and nowadays awarded annually to deserving senior citizens. There are Maundy coins in denominations of one, two, three and four pence. They bear dates from 1822 to the present and are minted in very small quantities. Though they are legal tender in the UK, they are rarely or never encountered in circulation. The pre-decimal Maundy pieces have the same legal tender status and value as post-decimal ones, and effectively increased in face value by 140% upon decimalisation. Their numismatic value is much greater.Maundy coins still bear the original portrait of the Queen as used in the circulating coins of the first years of her reign.Bullion coinageThe traditional bullion coin issued by Britain is the gold sovereign, formerly a circulating coin worth 20 shillings (or one pound) and with 0.23542 troy ounces (7.322 g) of fine gold, but now with a nominal value of one pound. The Royal Mint continues to produce sovereigns, as well as quarter sovereigns (introduced in 2009), half sovereigns, double sovereigns and quintuple sovereigns.Between 1987 and 2012 a series of bullion coins, the Britannia, was issued, containing 1 troy ounce (31.1 g), 1⁄2 ounce, 1⁄4 ounce and 1⁄10 ounce of fine gold at a millesimal fineness of 916 (22 carat) and with face values of £100, £50, £25, and £10.Since 2013 Britannia bullion contains 1 troy ounce of fine gold at a millesimal fineness of 999 (24 carat).Between 1997 and 2012 silver bullion coins have also been produced under the name "Britannias". The alloy used was Britannia silver (millesimal fineness 958). The silver coins were available in 1 troy ounce (31.1 g), 1⁄2 ounce, 1⁄4 ounce and 1⁄10 ounce sizes. Since 2013 the alloy used is silver at a (millesimal fineness 999).In 2016 the Royal Mint launched a series of 10 Queen's Beasts bullion coins,[33] one for each beast available in both gold and silver.The Royal Mint also issues silver, gold and platinum proof sets of the circulating coins, as well as gift products such as gold coins set into jewellery.Non-UK coinageThe British Islands (red) and overseas territories (blue) using the Pound or their local issue.Outside the United Kingdom, the British Crown Dependencies of Jersey and Guernsey use the pound sterling as their currencies. However, they produce local issues of coinage in the same denominations and specifications, but with different designs. These circulate freely alongside UK coinage and English, Northern Irish, and Scottish banknotes within these territories, but must be converted in order to be used in the UK. The island of Alderney also produces occasional commemorative coins. (See coins of the Jersey pound, coins of the Guernsey pound, and Alderney pound for details.). The Isle of Man is a unique case among the Crown Dependencies, issuing its own currency, the Manx pound.[citation needed] While the Isle of Man recognises the Pound Sterling as a secondary currency, coins of the Manx pound are not legal tender in the UK.The pound sterling is also the official currency of the British overseas territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands,[34] British Antarctic Territory[35] and Tristan da Cunha.[36] South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands produces occasional special collectors' sets of coins.[37] In 2008, British Antarctic Territory issued a £2 coin commemorating the centenary of Britain's claim to the region.[38]The currencies of the British overseas territories of Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands and Saint Helena/Ascension — namely the Gibraltar pound, Falkland Islands pound and Saint Helena pound — are pegged one-to-one to the pound sterling but are technically separate currencies. These territories issue their own coinage, again with the same denominations and specifications as the UK coinage but with local designs, as coins of the Gibraltar pound, coins of the Falkland Islands pound and coins of the Saint Helena pound.The other British overseas territories do not use sterling as their official currency.Pre-decimal coinageHalf crown, 1953Two shilling coin, or florin, 1949Shilling, 1956, showing English and Scottish reversesFor further information about the history of pre-decimal coinage, see Pound sterling and Decimal Day.SystemBefore decimalisation in 1971, the pound was divided into 240 pence rather than 100, though it was rarely expressed in this way. Rather it was expressed in terms of pounds, shillings and pence, where: £1 = 20 shillings (20s). 1 shilling = 12 pence (12d).Thus: £1 = 240d. The penny was further subdivided at various times, though these divisions vanished as inflation made them irrelevant: 1 penny = 2 halfpennies and (earlier) 4 farthings (half farthing, a third of a farthing, and quarter farthing coins were minted in the late 19th century, and into the early 20th century in the case of the third farthing, but circulated only in certain British colonies and not in the UK).Using the example of five shillings and sixpence, the standard ways of writing shillings and pence were: 5s 6d 5/6 5/- for 5 shillings only, with the dash to stand for zero pennies.The sum of 5/6 would be spoken as "five shillings and sixpence" or "five and six".The abbreviation for the old penny, d, was derived from the Roman denarius, and the abbreviation for the shilling, s, from the Roman solidus. The shilling was also denoted by the slash symbol, also called a solidus for this reason, which was originally an adaptation of the long s.[39] The symbol "£", for the pound, is derived from the first letter of the Latin word for pound, libra.[40]A similar pre-decimal system operated in France, also based on the Roman currency, consisting of the livre (L), sol or sou (s) and denier (d). Until 1816 another similar system was used in the Netherlands, consisting of the gulden (G), stuiver (s; 1⁄20 G) and duit, (d; 1⁄8 s or 1⁄160 G).DenominationsFor an extensive list of historical pre-decimal coin denominations, see List of British banknotes and coins.In the years just prior to decimalisation, the circulating British coins were:Denomination Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Introduced WithdrawnFarthing (1⁄4d) Various Monarchs Wren (Britannia on early mintages) 20.19 mm 2.83 g Bronze Smooth 1860 1961Half penny (1⁄2d) Golden Hind (Britannia on early mintages) 25.48 mm 5.67 g 1969Penny (1d) Britannia 31 mm 9.45 g 1971Threepence (3d) King George VI 1937–1952Queen Elizabeth II 1953–1971 Thrift until 1952 Crowned portcullis with chains 21.0–21.8 mm 2.5 mm 6.8 g Nickel-brass Plain (12-sided) 1937 1971Sixpence (6d) King George VI 1946–1952Queen Elizabeth II 1953–1971 Crowned royal cypher until 1952 Floral design – Four Home Nations 19.41 mm 2.83 g Cupronickel Milled 1947 1980Shilling (1/-) Crowned lion on Tudor crown or Crowned lion standing on Scottish crown until 1952 Coat of Arms of England or Scotland 23.60 mm 1.7 mm 5.66 g 1990Florin (2/-) Crowned rose flanked by a thistle and shamrock until 1952 Rose encircled by thistle, leek and shamrock 28.5 mm 1.85 mm 11.31 g 1992Half crown (2/6) Royal Shield flanked by crowned royal cypher until 1952 Crowned Royal Shield 32.31 mm 14.14 g 1969Crown (5/-) Various commemorative designs 38 mm 2.89 mm 28.28 g 1951 PresentThe farthing (1⁄4d) had been demonetised on 1 January 1961, whilst the crown (5/-) was issued periodically as a commemorative coin but rarely found in circulation.The crown, half crown, florin, shilling, and sixpence were cupronickel coins (in historical times silver or silver alloy); the penny, halfpenny, and farthing were bronze; and the threepence was a twelve-sided nickel-brass coin (historically it was a small silver coin).Some of the pre-decimalisation coins with exact decimal equivalent values continued in use after 1971 alongside the new coins, albeit with new names (the shilling became equivalent to the 5p coin, with the florin equating to 10p), and the others were withdrawn almost immediately. The use of florins and shillings as legal tender in this way ended in 1991 and 1993 when the 5p and 10p coins were replaced with smaller versions. Indeed, while pre-decimalisation shillings were used as 5p coins, for a while after decimalisation many people continued to call the new 5p coin a shilling, since it remained 1⁄20 of a pound, but was now counted as 5p (five new pence) instead of 12d (twelve old pennies). The pre-decimalisation sixpence, also known as a sixpenny bit or sixpenny piece, was equivalent to 2+1⁄2p, but was demonetised in 1980.Pre-decimal coins of the pound sterling Five pounds Double sovereign Sovereign Crown Half crown Florin Shilling Sixpence Groat Threepence Penny Halfpenny Farthing Half farthing Third farthing Quarter farthingFive pounds 1 2+1⁄2 5 20 40 50 100 200 300 400 1200 2400 4800 9600 14400 19200Double sovereign 2⁄5 1 2 8 16 20 40 80 120 160 480 960 1920 3840 5760 7680Sovereign 1⁄5 1⁄2 1 4 8 10 20 40 60 80 240 480 960 1920 2880 3840Crown 1⁄20 1⁄8 1⁄4 1 2 2+1⁄2 5 10 15 20 60 120 240 480 720 960Half crown 1⁄40 1⁄16 1⁄8 1⁄2 1 1+1⁄4 2+1⁄2 5 7+1⁄2 10 30 60 120 240 360 480Florin 1⁄50 1⁄20 1⁄10 2⁄5 4⁄5 1 2 4 6 8 24 48 96 192 288 384Shilling 1⁄100 1⁄40 1⁄20 1⁄5 2⁄5 1⁄2 1 2 3 4 12 24 48 96 144 192Sixpence 1⁄200 1⁄80 1⁄40 1⁄10 1⁄5 1⁄4 1⁄2 1 1+1⁄2 2 6 12 24 48 72 96Groat 1⁄300 1⁄120 1⁄60 1⁄15 2⁄15 1⁄6 1⁄3 2⁄3 1 1+1⁄3 4 8 16 32 48 64Threepence 1⁄400 1⁄160 1⁄80 1⁄20 1⁄10 1⁄8 1⁄4 1⁄2 3⁄4 1 3 6 12 24 36 48Penny 1⁄1200 1⁄480 1⁄240 1⁄60 1⁄30 1⁄24 1⁄12 1⁄6 1⁄4 1⁄3 1 2 4 8 12 16Halfpenny 1⁄2400 1⁄960 1⁄480 1⁄120 1⁄60 1⁄48 1⁄24 1⁄12 1⁄8 1⁄6 1⁄2 1 2 4 6 8Farthing 1⁄4800 1⁄1920 1⁄960 1⁄240 1⁄120 1⁄96 1⁄48 1⁄24 1⁄16 1⁄12 1⁄4 1⁄2 1 2 3 4Half farthing 1⁄9600 1⁄3840 1⁄1920 1⁄480 1⁄240 1⁄192 1⁄96 1⁄48 1⁄36 1⁄24 1⁄8 1⁄4 1⁄2 1 1+1⁄2 2Third farthing 1⁄14400 1⁄5760 1⁄2880 1⁄720 1⁄360 1⁄288 1⁄144 1⁄72 1⁄48 1⁄36 1⁄12 1⁄6 1⁄3 2⁄3 1 1+1⁄3Quarter farthing 1⁄19200 1⁄7680 1⁄3840 1⁄960 1⁄480 1⁄384 1⁄192 1⁄96 1⁄72 1⁄48 1⁄16 1⁄8 1⁄4 1⁄2 3⁄4 1Visualisation of some British currency terms before decimalisationSlang and everyday usageSome pre-decimalisation coins or denominations became commonly known by colloquial and slang terms, perhaps the most well known being bob for a shilling, and quid for a pound. A farthing was a mag, a silver threepence was a joey and the later nickel-brass threepence was called a threepenny bit (/ˈθrʌpni/ or /ˈθrɛpni/ bit, i.e. thrup'ny or threp'ny bit – the apostrophe was pronounced on a scale from full "e" down to complete omission); a sixpence was a tanner, the two-shilling coin or florin was a two-bob bit. Bob is still used in phrases such as "earn/worth a bob or two",[41][better source needed] and "bob‐a‐job week". The two shillings and sixpence coin or half-crown was a half-dollar, also sometimes referred to as two and a kick. A value of two pence was universally pronounced /ˈtʌpəns/ tuppence, a usage which is still heard today, especially among older people. The unaccented suffix "-pence", pronounced /pəns/, was similarly appended to the other numbers up to twelve; thus "fourpence", "sixpence-three-farthings", "twelvepence-ha'penny", but "eighteen pence" would usually be said "one-and-six".Quid remains as popular slang for one or more pounds to this day in Britain in the form "a quid" and then "two quid", and so on. Similarly, in some parts of the country, bob continued to represent one-twentieth of a pound, that is five new pence, and two bob is 10p.[42]The introduction of decimal currency caused a new casual usage to emerge, where any value in pence is spoken using the suffix pee: e.g. "twenty-three pee" or, in the early years, "two-and-a-half pee" rather than the previous "tuppence-ha'penny". Amounts over a pound are normally spoken thus: "five pounds forty". A value with less than ten pence over the pound is sometimes spoken like this: "one pound and a penny", "three pounds and fourpence". The slang term "bit" has almost disappeared from use completely, although in Scotland a fifty pence is sometimes referred to as a "ten bob bit". Decimal denomination coins are generally described using the terms piece or coin, for example, "a fifty-pee piece", a "ten-pence coin".Monarch's profileAll coins since the 17th century have featured a profile of the current monarch's head. The direction in which they face changes with each successive monarch, a pattern that began with the Stuarts, as shown in the table below:Facing left Facing right Cromwell 1653–1658[43] Broad 1656 Oliver Cromwell coin.jpg Charles II 1660–1685 Guinea 641642.jpgJames II 1685–1688 James2coin.jpg William and Mary 1689–1694William III 1694–1702 William and Mary Guinea 612668.jpgAnne 1702–1714 Half-crown of Anne.jpg George I 1714–1727 George I Quarter Guinea 641648.jpgGeorge II 1727–1760 George II Guinea 722655.jpg George III 1760–1820 Sovereign George III 1817 641656.jpgGeorge IV 1820–1830 Sovereign George IV 1828 651295.jpg William IV 1830–1837 William4coin.jpgVictoria 1837–1901 Sovereign Victoria 1842 662015.jpg Edward VII 1901–1910 Matte proof 5 pound Edwards VII.jpgGeorge V 1910–1936 1 penny 1927 george 5.jpg Edward VIII 1936 EdwardVIIIcoin.jpg (uncirculated issues)George VI 1936–1952 1937 George VI penny.jpg Elizabeth II 1952–present 1953 half crown obverse.jpgFor the Tudors and pre-Restoration Stuarts, both left- and right-facing portrait images were minted within the reign of a single monarch (left-facing images were more common). In the Middle Ages, portrait images tended to be full face.There was a small quirk in this alternating pattern when Edward VIII became king in January 1936 and was portrayed facing left, the same as his predecessor George V. This was because Edward thought his left side to be better than his right.[44] However, Edward VIII abdicated in December 1936 and his coins were never put into general circulation. When George VI came to the throne, he had his coins struck with him facing the left, as if Edward VIII's coins had faced right (as they should have done according to tradition). Thus, in a timeline of circulating British coins, George V and VI's coins both feature left-facing portraits, although they follow directly chronologically.Regal titlesA 1937 George VI pennyFrom a very early date, British coins have been inscribed with the name of the ruler of the kingdom in which they were produced, and a longer or shorter title, always in Latin; among the earliest distinctive English coins are the silver pennies of Offa of Mercia, which were inscribed with the legend OFFA REX "King Offa". As the legends became longer, words in the inscriptions were often abbreviated so that they could fit on the coin; identical legends have often been abbreviated in different ways depending upon the size and decoration of the coin. Inscriptions which go around the edge of the coin generally have started at the center of the top edge and proceeded in a clockwise direction. A very lengthy legend would be continued on the reverse side of the coin. All but Edward III and both Elizabeths use Latinised names (which would have been EDWARDUS and ELIZABETHA respectively).Examples of coinage legends Latin text English text NotesEDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB(E) Edward III, by the grace of God King of England and France, Lord of Ireland EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL DNS HYB Z ACQ Edward, by the grace of God King of England, Lord of Ireland and Aquitaine Used after the Treaty of Brétigny (1360) when Edward III temporarily gave up his claim to the French throne.EDWARD DEI G REX ANG Z FRA DNS HYB Z ACT Edward, by the grace of God King of England and France, Lord of Ireland and Aquitaine. Used after Anglo-French relations broke down and Edward III resumed his claim.HENRICUS VII DEI GRATIA REX ANGLIÆ & FRANCIÆ Henry VII by the Grace of God, King of England and France France had been claimed by the English continuously since 1369.HENRICUS VIII DEI GRATIA REX ANGLIÆ & FRANCIÆ Henry VIII by the Grace of God, King of England and France The Arabic numeral 8 was also used instead of the Roman VIII.HENRICUS VIII DEI GRATIA ANGLIÆ FRANCIÆ & HIBERNIÆ REX Henry VIII by the Grace of God, Of England, France and Ireland, King Used after Henry VIII made Ireland a kingdom in 1541. The Arabic numeral 8 was also used instead of the Roman VIII.PHILIPPUS ET MARIA DEI GRATIA REX & REGINA Philip and Mary by the Grace of God, King and Queen The names of the realms were omitted from the coin for reasons of space.ELIZABETH DEI GRATIA ANGLIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REGINA Elizabeth, by the Grace of God, of England, France, and Ireland, Queen IACOBUS DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King James, King of Scotland, by succeeding to the English throne united the two kingdoms in his person; he dubbed the combination of the two kingdoms "Great Britain" (the name of the whole island) though they remained legislatively distinct for more than a century afterwards.CAROLUS DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX Charles, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King OLIVARIUS DEI GRATIA REIPUBLICÆ ANGLIÆ SCOTIÆ HIBERNIÆ & CETERORUM PROTECTOR Oliver, by the Grace of God, of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, Ireland etc., Protector Cromwell ruled as a monarch but did not claim the title of king.CAROLUS II DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX Charles II, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King IACOBUS II DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX James II, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King GULIELMUS ET MARIA DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX ET REGINA William and Mary by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King and Queen The spouses William and Mary ruled jointly.GULIELMUS III DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX William III by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King William continued to rule alone after his wife's death.ANNA DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REGINA Anne by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Queen GEORGIUS DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR BRUNSVICENSIS ET LUNEBURGENSIS DUX SACRI ROMANI IMPERII ARCHITHESAURARIUS ET ELECTOR George by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, of Brunswick and Lüneburg Duke, of the Holy Roman Empire Archtreasurer and Elector George I added the titles he already possessed as Elector of Hanover. He also added the title "Defender of the Faith", which had been borne by the English kings since Henry VIII, but which had previously only rarely appeared on coins.GEORGIUS II DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR BRUNSVICENSIS ET LUNEBURGENSIS DUX SACRI ROMANI IMPERII ARCHITHESAURARIUS ET ELECTOR George II by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, of Brunswick and Lüneburg Duke, of the Holy Roman Empire Archtreasurer and Elector GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR BRUNSVICENSIS ET LUNEBURGENSIS DUX SACRI ROMANI IMPERII ARCHITHESAURARIUS ET ELECTOR George III by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, of Brunswick and Lüneburg Duke, of the Holy Roman Empire Archtreasurer and Elector GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR George III, by the Grace of God, of the Britains King, Defender of the Faith The Acts of Union united Great Britain and Ireland into a single kingdom, represented on the coinage by the Latin genitive plural Britanniarum ("of the Britains", often abbreviated BRITT). At the same time, the claim to the throne of France was dropped and other titles were omitted from the coinage.GEORGIUS IIII (IV) DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR George IV, by the Grace of God, of the Britains King, Defender of the Faith The Roman numeral "4" is represented by both IIII and IV in different issues.GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR William IV, by the Grace of God, of the Britains King, Defender of the Faith VICTORIA DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATRIX Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the Britains Queen, Defender of the Faith VICTORIA DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATRIX INDIÆ IMPERATRIX Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the Britains Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India Queen Victoria was granted the title "Empress of India" in 1876.EDWARDUS VII DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM OMNIUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR INDIÆ IMPERATOR Edward VII, by the Grace of God, of all the Britains King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India Edward VII's coins added OMNIUM ("all") after "Britains" to imply a rule over the British overseas colonies as well as the United Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.GEORGIUS V DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM OMNIUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR INDIÆ IMPERATOR George V, by the Grace of God, of all the Britains King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India GEORGIUS VI DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM OMNIUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR INDIÆ IMPERATOR George VI, by the Grace of God, of all the Britains King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India GEORGIUS VI DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM OMNIUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR George VI, by the Grace of God, of all the Britains King, Defender of the Faith The title "Emperor of India" was relinquished in 1948, after the independence of India and Pakistan.ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM OMNIUM REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATRIX Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of all the Britains Queen, Defender of the Faith ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATRIX Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, Queen, Defender of the Faith The "of all the Britains" was dropped from the coinage in 1954, and current coins do not name any realm.Coins in the coloniesSome coins made for circulation in the British colonies are considered part of British coinage because they have no indication of what country it was minted for and they were made in the same style as contemporary coins circulating in the United Kingdom.A three halfpence (1+1⁄2 pence, 1/160 of a pound) coin was circulated mainly in the West Indies and Ceylon in the starting in 1834. Jamaicans referred to the coin as a "quatty".[45]The half farthing (1/8 of a penny, 1/1920 of a pound) coin was initially minted in 1828 for use in Ceylon, but was declared legal tender in the United Kingdom in 1842.[46]The third farthing (1/12 of a penny, 1/2880 of a pound) coin was minted for use in Malta, starting in 1827..[46]The quarter farthing (1/16 of a penny, 1/3840 of a pound) coin was minted for use in Ceylon starting in 1839.[46]MottosIn addition to the title, a Latin or French motto might be included, generally on the reverse side of the coin. These varied between denominations and issues; some were personal to the monarch, others were more general. Some of the mottos were: POSUI DEUM ADIUTOREM MEUM "I have made God my helper". Coins of Henry VII, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I. Possibly refers to Psalm 52:7, Ecce homo qui non-posuit Deum adjutorem suum "Behold the man who did not make God his helper". RUTILANS ROSA SINE SPINA "A dazzling rose without a thorn". Coins of Henry VIII and Edward VI. Initially on the unsuccessful and very rare Crown of the Rose of Henry VIII and continued on subsequent small gold coinage into the reign of Edward VI. POSUIMUS DEUM ADIUTOREM NOSTRUM "We have made God our helper". Coins of Philip and Mary. The same as above, but with a plural subject. FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM UNAM "I shall make them into one nation". Coins of James I, signifying his desire to unite the English and Scottish nations. Refers to Ezekiel 37:22 in the Vulgate Bible. CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO "I reign with Christ as my protector". Coins of Charles I. EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI "May God rise up, may [his] enemies be scattered". Coins of Charles I, during the Civil War. Refers to Psalm 67:1 in the Vulgate Bible (Psalm 68 in English Bible numbering). PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO "Peace is sought by war". Coins of the Protectorate; personal motto of Oliver Cromwell. BRITANNIA "Britain". Reign of Charles II to George III. Found on pennies and smaller denominations. HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE. "Shamed be he who thinks ill of it." Sovereigns of George III. Motto of the Order of the Garter. DECUS ET TUTAMEN. "A decoration and protection." Some pound coins of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and some crown coins including some of Victoria and George V. Refers to the inscribed edge as a protection against the clipping of precious metal, as well as being a complimentary reference to the monarch and the monarchy.Minting errors reaching circulationCoins with errors in the minting process that reach circulation are often seen as valuable items by coin collectors.In 1983, the Royal Mint mistakenly produced some two pence pieces with the old wording "New Pence" on the reverse (tails) side, when the design had been changed from 1982 to "Two Pence".In 2016, a batch of double-dated £1 coins was released into circulation. These coins had the main date on the obverse stating '2017', but the micro-engraving having '2016' on it. it is not known how many exist and are in circulation, but the amount is fewer than half a million.In June 2009, the Royal Mint estimated that between 50,000 and 200,000 dateless 20 pence coins had entered circulation, the first undated British coin to enter circulation in more than 300 years. It resulted from the accidental combination of old and new face tooling in a production batch, creating what is known as a mule, following the 2008 redesign which moved the date from the reverse (tails) to the obverse (heads) side.[47]See also iconMoney portal Numismatics portal flagUnited Kingdom portal Banknotes of the pound sterling List of British bank notes and coins Mark (money) Non-decimal currency One hundred pounds (British coin) Roman currency Twenty pounds (British coin)References"New 12-sided pound coin to enter circulation in March". BBC News. 1 January 2017. Archived from the original on 31 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017."How can I dispose of commemorative crowns? And why do some have a higher face value than others?". The Royal Mint Museum. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2019."Mintage Figures". The Royal Mint. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013."Coins – Collector Gold & Silver Coins & Limited Edition Gifts". The Royal Mint. Archived from the original on 10 February 2005."Llantrisant". Royal Mint. 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012. "In April 1967 it was announced that the new Royal Mint would be built at Llantrisant in South Wales.""National Museums of Scotland – Balance and scales (detail)". Archived from the original on 9 April 2009.The 1696 Recoinage (1696–1699) Archived 14 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Richard Kleer, University of Regina, The Literary EncyclopediaNewton and the Counterfeiter, Thomas Levenson, Faber & Faber, ISBN 978-0-571-22992-5The Scottish Mint after the recoinage, 1709–1836 Archived 22 August 2009 at Wikiwix, Athol L Murray, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1999Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage, 1707–10 Archived 21 August 2009 at Wikiwix, Athol L Murray, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1997On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold- and Silver-Trade Archived 28 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Sir Isaac Newton, 21 September 1717.By The King, A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, Vol V., April 1842 – January 1843McVeigh, Karen (12 May 2006). "Why coppers are rising in value". The Times. Retrieved 19 June 2022.Corporate FAQs Archived 11 November 2007 at the Wayback MachineThe Fifth Definitive Coinage Portrait First Edition Archived 3 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine Royal Mint (www.royalmint.com). Retrieved on 2015-03-03."Royal Mint unveils coin designs". BBC News. 2 April 2008. Archived from the original on 25 June 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2009.New Coin Designs FAQ Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Mint"Birmingham MP's crusade to bring back Britannia on coins" Archived 8 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Birmingham Post, 9 February 2009"Your Change is Changing". Bulletin. Royal Mint (107): 6. 2008. "[Stephen Raw said] "We couldn't have had post-modern designs like this 50 years ago – the public simply wouldn't have accepted them""Wales short-changed by new coin designs" Archived 13 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Daily Post (North Wales), 3 April 2008Ironside, Virginia (6 April 2008). "I hate the new coins. My father must be turning in his grave". The Independent. Retrieved 6 May 2020."Make Way for Britain's New Coin Designs". Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2008."Cupro Nickel Replacement Programme". Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014."Treasury 'should foot coin change bill'". BBC News. 5 November 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.Lacey, Anna (22 June 2013). "A bad penny? New coins and nickel allergy". BBC Health Check. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013."Royal Mint starts new £1 coin production". TheGuardian.com. 31 March 2016."£1 Coin | the Royal Mint"."£2 Coin Designs and Specifications | the Royal Mint"."The Great British Coin Hunt 2018 – Quintessentially British a to Z Sterling Silver Coins"."Legal Tender Guidelines | the Royal Mint"."How the Royal Mint is Attempting to Redefine "Legal Tender" for Collector Coins". 27 March 2016.Barker, Simon (14 January 2020). "Are £5 Coins Legal Tender?". CostlyCoins."The Queen's Beasts are brought to life in a new bullion coin range", Royal Mint Blog, 31 March 2016, archived from the original on 2 April 2016, retrieved 1 April 2016"Foreign and Commonwealth Office country profiles: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands". fco.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2018."Foreign and Commonwealth Office country profiles: British Antarctic Territory". fco.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2018."Foreign and Commonwealth Office country profiles: Tristan da Cunha". fco.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2018."Government of South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands". Archived from the original on 12 November 2002.The British Antarctic Territory Currency Archived 19 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Antarctic Heritage TrustQuine, W. V. (1987). Quiddities: An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary. Harvard University Press. p. 126. ISBN 9780674042438."Ask Oxford". Archived from the original on 29 March 2007.""bob or two" – Google Search".David Jones (7 April 2008). "Two Bob Trouble". Blogspot.Coins with Cromwell's image were first minted in 1656 by Pierre Blondeau."Rare Edward VIII coin showing profile of monarch's 'better side' goes on display". BT.com. Retrieved 13 October 2019.Chalmers, Robert (1893). A History of Currency in the British Colonies. London, UK: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. p. 110. Retrieved 15 November 2014."Fractional Farthings". Bingham, John (29 June 2009). "Mix-up at Royal Mint creates dateless 20p pieces worth £50". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2 July 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009.External links Clayton, Tony: Coins of England and Great Britain Chard, Juliana: Common Names of British Coin Denominations UK Coin Designs and Specifications from the Royal Mint's website Coin Designs — Royal Mint competition designs United Kingdom: Coins Issued and Used – list of all UK coins, with photos and descriptions Old Money Converter – converts £sd to decimal currency Old Money Converter 2 – converts decimal currency to £sd vteSterling coinageDecimal 1/2p 1p 2p 5p 10p 20p 50p £1 £2Pre-decimal Quarter farthing (1/16d) Third farthing (1/12d) Half farthing (1/8d) Farthing (1/4d) Halfpenny (1/2d) Penny (1d) Three halfpence (1+1/2d) Twopence (2d) Threepence (3d) Fourpence (4d) Sixpence (6d) Shilling (1/–) Fifteen pence (1/3d) Florin (2/–) Half crown (2/6d) Double florin (4/–) Crown (5/–) Quarter guinea (5/3d) Third guinea (7/–) Half sovereign (10/–) Half guinea (10/6d) Sovereign (£1) Guinea (£1/1/–) Double sovereign (£2) Two guineas (£2/2/–) Five pounds (£5) 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DependenciesCurrencies of the United KingdomPre-decimalisation coins of the United Kingdom1887Millennium: 2nd millenniumCenturies: 18th century 19th century 20th centuryDecades: 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900sYears: 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 18901887 in topicHumanitiesArchaeology – Architecture – ArtFilm - Literature – Music - (jazz)By countryAustralia – Belgium – Brazil – Bulgaria – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – VenezuelaOther topicsRail transport – Science – SportsLists of leadersSovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leadersBirth and death categoriesBirths – DeathsEstablishments and disestablishments categoriesEstablishments – DisestablishmentsWorks categoryWorks1887 in various calendarsGregorian calendar 1887MDCCCLXXXVIIAb urbe condita 2640Armenian calendar 1336ԹՎ ՌՅԼԶAssyrian calendar 6637Baháʼí calendar 43–44Balinese saka calendar 1808–1809Bengali calendar 1294Berber calendar 2837British Regnal year 50 Vict. 1 – 51 Vict. 1Buddhist calendar 2431Burmese calendar 1249Byzantine calendar 7395–7396Chinese calendar 丙戌年 (Fire Dog)4583 or 4523 — to —丁亥年 (Fire Pig)4584 or 4524Coptic calendar 1603–1604Discordian calendar 3053Ethiopian calendar 1879–1880Hebrew calendar 5647–5648Hindu calendars- Vikram Samvat 1943–1944- Shaka Samvat 1808–1809- Kali Yuga 4987–4988Holocene calendar 11887Igbo calendar 887–888Iranian calendar 1265–1266Islamic calendar 1304–1305Japanese calendar Meiji 20(明治20年)Javanese calendar 1816–1817Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 daysKorean calendar 4220Minguo calendar 25 before ROC民前25年Nanakshahi calendar 419Thai solar calendar 2429–2430Tibetan calendar 阳火狗年(male Fire-Dog)2013 or 1632 or 860 — to —阴火猪年(female Fire-Pig)2014 or 1633 or 861 Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1887.1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1887th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 887th year of the 2nd millennium, the 87th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1887, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.Contents 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 ReferencesEventsJanuary–MarchJanuary 11 – Louis Pasteur's anti-rabies treatment is defended in the Académie Nationale de Médecine, by Dr. Joseph Grancher.January 20 The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base.[1] British emigrant ship Kapunda sinks after a collision off the coast of Brazil, killing 303 with only 16 survivors.[2]January 21 The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) is formed in the United States. Brisbane receives a one-day rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 in) (a record for any Australian capital city).January 24 – Battle of Dogali: Abyssinian troops defeat the Italians.January 28 In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, the largest snowflakes on record are reported. They are 15 inches (38 cm) wide and 8 inches (20 cm) thick. Construction work begins on the foundations of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France.[3]February 2 – The first Groundhog Day is observed in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania.[4]February 4 – The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, passed by the 49th United States Congress, is signed into law by President Grover Cleveland.[5]February 5 – The Giuseppe Verdi opera Otello premieres at La Scala, Milan.February 8 – The Dawes Act, or the General Allotment Act, is enacted in the United States.[6]February 23 – The French Riviera is hit by a large earthquake, killing around 2,000 along the coast of the Mediterranean.February 26 – At the Sydney Cricket Ground, George Lohmann becomes the first bowler to take eight wickets, in a Test innings.March 3 – Anne Sullivan begins teaching Helen Keller. March 3: Helen Keller and Sullivan. March 7 – North Carolina State University is established, as North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. March 13 – Chester Greenwood patents earmuffs in the United States.April–June April 1 – The final of the first All-Ireland Hurling Championship is held.[7] April 4 – Argonia, Kansas, elects Susanna M. Salter as the first female mayor in the United States.[8] April 10 (Easter Sunday) – The Catholic University of America is founded in Washington, D.C. April 20 – Occidental College is founded in Los Angeles, California. April 21 – Schnaebele incident: A French/German border incident nearly leads to war between the two countries.[9] May 3 – An earthquake hits Sonora, Mexico. May 9 – Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show opens in London. May 14 – The cornerstone of the new Stanford University, in northern California, is laid (the college opens in 1891). May 25 – The Hells Canyon massacre begins: 34 Chinese gold miners are ambushed and murdered in Hells Canyon, Oregon, United States.[10] June 8 – Herman Hollerith receives a U.S. patent for his punched card calculator. June 18 – The Reinsurance Treaty is closed between Germany and Russia. June 21 The British Empire celebrates Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, marking the 50th year of her reign.[11] Zululand becomes a British colony. June 23 – The Rocky Mountains Park Act becomes law in Canada, creating that nation's first national park, Banff National Park.[12]June 23: Banff National Park June 28 – Minot, North Dakota is incorporated as a city. June 29 – The United Retail Federation is established in Brisbane, Australia.July–September July – James Blyth operates the first working wind turbine at Marykirk, Scotland.[13][14] July 1 – Construction of the iron structure of the Eiffel Tower starts in Paris, France. July 6 – King Kalākaua of Hawai'i is forced by anti-monarchists to sign the 'Bayonet Constitution', stripping the Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority, as well as disenfranchising most native Hawaiians, all Asians and the poor. July 12 – Odense Boldklub, the Danish football team, is founded as the Odense Cricket Club. July 19 – Dorr Eugene Felt receives the first U.S. patent for his comptometer.[15] July 26 L. L. Zamenhof publishes "Unua Libro" (Dr. Esperanto's International Language), the first description of Esperanto, the constructed international auxiliary language. Blackpool F.C. is created in England, U.K. August – The earliest constituent of the U.S. National Institutes of Health is established at the Marine Hospital, Staten Island, as the Laboratory of Hygiene. August 8 – Antonio Guzmán Blanco ends his term as President of Venezuela. August 13 – Hibernian F.C. of Scotland defeats Preston North End F.C. of England to win the 'Championship of the World', after the two teams win the Association football Cup competitions in their respective countries. September 5 – The Theatre Royal, Exeter, England, burns down, killing 186 people. September 28 – The 1887 Yellow River flood begins in China, killing 900,000 to 2,000,000 people.July 26: EsperantoOctober–December October 1 – The British Empire takes over Balochistan. October 3 – Florida A&M University opens its doors in Tallahassee, Florida. October 12 – Yamaha Corporation, the global musical instrument and audiovisual brand, is founded as Yamaha Organ Manufacturing in Hamamatsu, Japan.[16] November Results of the Michelson–Morley experiment are published, indicating that the speed of light is independent of motion. Arthur Conan Doyle's detective character Sherlock Holmes makes his first appearance, in the novel A Study in Scarlet, published in Beeton's Christmas Annual. November 3 – The Coimbra Academic Association, the students' union of the University of Coimbra in Portugal, is founded. November 6 – The Association football club Celtic F.C. is formed in Glasgow, Scotland, by Irish Marist Brother Walfrid, to help alleviate poverty in the city's East End by raising money for his charity, the 'Poor Children's Dinner Table'.[17][18] November 8 – Emile Berliner is granted a U.S. patent for the Berliner Gramophone. November 10 – Louis Lingg, sentenced to be hanged for his alleged role in the Haymarket affair (a bombing in Chicago on May 4, 1886), kills himself by dynamite. November 11 – August Spies, Albert Parsons, Adolph Fischer and George Engel are hanged for inciting riot and murder in the Haymarket affair. November 13 – Bloody Sunday: Police in London clash with radical and Irish nationalist protesters. December 5 – The International Bureau of Intellectual Property is established. December 25 – Glenfiddich single malt Scotch whisky is first produced.Date unknown Laos and Cambodia are added to French Indochina. Heinrich Hertz discovers the photoelectric effect on the production and reception of electromagnetic (EM) waves (radio); this is an important step towards the understanding of the quantum nature of light. Franz König publishes "Über freie Körper in den Gelenken" in the medical journal Deutsche Zeitschrift für Chirurgie, describing (and naming) the disease Osteochondritis dissecans for the first time. Teachers College, later part of Columbia University, is founded. The first English-language edition of Friedrich Engels' 1844 study of The Condition of the Working Class in England, translated by Florence Kelley, is published in New York City. Publication in Barcelona of Enrique Gaspar's El anacronópete, the first work of fiction to feature a time machine.[19] Publication begins of Futabatei Shimei's The Drifting Cloud (Ukigumo), the first modern novel in Japan. The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is founded. Nagase Shoten (長瀬商店), predecessor of Japanese cosmetics and toiletry brand Kao Corporation, is founded in Nihonbashi, Tokyo, Japan.[citation needed] Tokyo Fire Insurance, predecessor of Sompo Japan Nipponkoa Insurance, is founded.[20] Global construction and real estate development company Skanska is founded in Malmö, Sweden.[21] American financial services company A. G. Edwards is founded by General Albert Gallatin Edwards in St. Louis, Missouri. Heyl & Patterson Inc., a pioneer in coal unloading equipment, is founded by Edmund W. Heyl and William J. Patterson in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The first battery rail car is used on the Royal Bavarian State Railways.[22]BirthsJanuary–FebruaryMiklós KállayArthur RubinsteinEdelmiro Julián FarrellJoseph BechChico Marx January 1 Wilhelm Canaris, head of German military intelligence in World War II (d. 1945) Max Ritter von Müller, German World War I fighter ace (d. 1918) January 3 – August Macke, German painter (d. 1914)[23] January 10 – Robinson Jeffers, American poet (d. 1962) January 13 – Jorge Chávez, pioneer Peruvian aviator (d. 1910) January 17 – Ola Raknes, Norwegian psychoanalyst, philologist (d. 1975) January 19 – Alexander Woollcott, American intellectual (d. 1943) January 21 – Maude Davis, oldest person in the world (d. 2002) January 22 – Elmer Fowler Stone, American aviator, first United States Coast Guard aviator (d. 1936) January 23 Miklós Kállay, 34th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1967)[24] Dorothy Payne Whitney, American-born philanthropist, social activist (d. 1968) January 28 – Arthur Rubinstein, Polish-born pianist and conductor (d. 1982)[25] February 3 – Georg Trakl, Austrian poet (d. 1914)[26] February 5 – Corneliu Dragalina, Romanian general (d. 1949) February 6 – Josef Frings, Archbishop of Cologne (d. 1978) February 10 – John Franklin Enders, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1985)[27] February 11 – Ernst Hanfstaengl, German-born pianist, U.S. politician (d. 1975) February 12 – Edelmiro Julián Farrell, Argentine general, 28th President of Argentina (d. 1980) February 17 Joseph Bech, Luxembourgish politician, 2-time Prime Minister of Luxembourg (d. 1975)[28] Leevi Madetoja, Finnish composer (d. 1947)[29] February 20 – Vincent Massey, Governor General of Canada (d. 1967)[30] February 21 – Korechika Anami, Japanese general (d. 1945)March–AprilJulian HuxleyMarc ChagallGustav Ludwig HertzErwin SchrödingerGiovanni Gronchi March 4 – Violet MacMillan, American Broadway theatre actress (d. 1953) March 5 Harry Turner, American professional football player (d. 1914) Heitor Villa-Lobos, Brazilian composer (d. 1959)[31] March 11 – Raoul Walsh, American film director (d. 1980) March 13 – Alexander Vandegrift, American general (d. 1973) March 14 Sylvia Beach, American publisher in Paris (d. 1952)[32] Charles Reisner, American silent actor, film director (d. 1962) March 18 – Aurel Aldea, Romanian general and politician (d. 1949) March 21 – Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal (d. 1908) March 22 – Chico Marx, American comedian and actor (d. 1961) March 23 Juan Gris, Spanish-born painter, graphic artist (d. 1927)[33] Prince Felix Yusupov, Russian assassin of Rasputin (d. 1967) March 24 – Roscoe Arbuckle, American actor, comedian, film director, and screenwriter (d. 1933) March 25 – Chūichi Nagumo, Japanese admiral (d. 1944) March 25 – Padre Pio, Italian Franciscan Capuchin, mystic and Catholic saint (d. 1968) April 2 – Louise Schroeder, German politician (d. 1957) April 3 – Nishizō Tsukahara, Japanese admiral (d. 1966) April 10 – Bernardo Houssay, Argentine physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971) April 12 – Harold Lockwood, American film actor (d.1918) April 15 Mike Brady, American golfer (d. 1972) Felix Pipes, Austrian tennis player (d. 1983)[34] April 22 – Harald Bohr, Danish mathematician and footballer (d. 1951)[35] April 26 – Kojo Tovalou Houénou, prominent African critic of the French colonial empire in Africa (d. 1936)May– JuneSaint-John Perse May 2 Vernon Castle, British dancer (d. 1918) Eddie Collins, American baseball player (d. 1951) May 5 – Geoffrey Fisher, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1972) May 11 – Paul Wittgenstein, Austrian-born pianist (d. 1951) May 15 – John H. Hoover, American admiral (d. 1970) May 22 – Jim Thorpe, American athlete (d. 1953) May 23 – C. R. M. F. Cruttwell, English historian (d. 1941)[36] May 25 – Pio of Pietrelcina, Italian saint (d. 1968) May 26 – Paul Lukas, Hungarian-born actor (d. 1971) May 31 – Saint-John Perse, French diplomat, writer and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975)[37] June 3 – Carlo Michelstaedter, Italian philosopher (d. 1910) June 4 – Tom Longboat, Canadian distance runner (d. 1949) June 5 – Ruth Benedict, American anthropologist (d. 1948) June 9 – Emilio Mola, Spanish Nationalist commander (d. 1937) June 13 – André François-Poncet, French politician, diplomat (d. 1978) June 22 Julian Huxley, British biologist (d. 1975) Santiago Amat, Spanish sailor (d. 1982) June 26 – Ganna Walska, Polish opera singer (d. 1984)July– August July 1 Maria Isidia da Conceição, Brazilian supercentenarian Morton Deyo, American admiral (d. 1973) July 3 – Elith Pio, Danish actor (d. 1983) July 6 – Annette Kellermann, Australian professional swimmer, vaudeville star, film actress, writer and business owner (d. 1975) July 7 – Marc Chagall, Russian-born painter (d. 1985)[38] July 9 – Samuel Eliot Morison, American historian (d. 1976) July 11 – Nicolae Păiș, Romanian admiral (d. 1952) July 14 – Curtis Shake, American jurist (d. 1978) July 16 – Shoeless Joe Jackson, American baseball player (d. 1951) July 18 – Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian politician, traitor (d. 1945) July 21 – Luis A. Eguiguren, Peruvian historian and politician (d. 1967) July 22 – Gustav Ludwig Hertz, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975) July 28 – Marcel Duchamp, French-born artist (d. 1968)[39] July 29 Sigmund Romberg, Hungarian-born composer (d. 1951) Mamoru Shigemitsu, Japanese diplomat and politician (d. 1957) July 31 – Mitsuru Ushijima, Japanese general (d. 1945) August 3 Rupert Brooke, British war poet (d. 1915)[40] August Wesley, Finnish journalist, trade unionist, and revolutionary (d. ?)[41] August 4 – Peter Bocage, American jazz musician (d. 1967) August 6 – Oliver Wallace, English-born film composer (d. 1963) August 12 – Erwin Schrödinger, Austrian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1961) August 13 – Julius Freed, American inventor, banker (d. 1952) August 17 Emperor Charles I of Austria (d. 1922) Marcus Garvey, African American publisher, entrepreneur and Pan Africanist (d. 1940)[42] August 22 – Walter Citrine, 1st Baron Citrine, British trade unionist (d. 1983) August 24 – Harry Hooper, American baseball player (d. 1974) August 27 – Julia Sanderson, American actress (d. 1975)September–OctoberAvery BrundageLe CorbusierChiang Kai-shek September 1 – Blaise Cendrars, Swiss writer (d. 1961)[43] September 3 – Frank Christian, American jazz musician (d. 1973) September 5 – Irene Fenwick, American actress (d. 1936) September 8 – Jacob L. Devers, American general (d. 1979) September 9 – Alf Landon, American Republican politician, presidential candidate (d. 1987) September 10 – Giovanni Gronchi, 3rd President of Italy (d. 1978) September 12 – Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli, Azerbaijani statesman, writer and claimed "core author" of novel Ali and Nino (d. in Gulag 1943) September 13 Lancelot Holland, British admiral (d. 1941) Leopold Ružička, Croatian chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1976) Frank Gray (researcher), Physicist and researcher, known for the Gray code (d. 1969) September 16 – Nadia Boulanger, French composer and composition teacher (d. 1979)[44] September 26 – William Barnard Rhodes-Moorhouse, British aviator, first airman to receive the Victoria Cross (d. 1915) September 28 – Avery Brundage, American sports official (d. 1975)[45] October 2 – Violet Jessop, Argentine-born British RMS Titanic survivor (d. 1971) October 4 – Charles Alan Pownall, American admiral, 3rd Military Governor of Guam (d. 1975) October 5 – René Cassin, French judge, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1976) October 6 – Le Corbusier, Swiss architect (d. 1965)[46] October 8 – Huntley Gordon, Canadian-born actor (d. 1956) October 13 – Jozef Tiso, Prime Minister of Slovakia (d. 1947) October 14 – Ernest Pingoud, Finnish composer (d. 1942) October 18 – Takashi Sakai, Japanese general (d. 1946) October 20 – Prince Yasuhiko Asaka, Japanese prince (d. 1981) October 22 – John Reed, American journalist (d. 1920)[47] October 23 – Lothar Rendulic, Austrian-born German general (d. 1971) October 24 – Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, Queen Consort of Spain (d. 1969) October 28 – Herb Byrne, Australian rules footballer (d. 1959) October 31 – Chiang Kai-shek, 1st President of the Republic of China (d. 1975)November - DecemberBernard MontgomeryBoris KarloffErich von Manstein November 1 – L. S. Lowry, English painter (d. 1976)[48] November 6 – Walter Johnson, American baseball player (d. 1946) November 10 – Arnold Zweig, German writer (d. 1968)[49] November 11 Walther Wever, German general, pre-World War II Luftwaffe commander (d. 1936) Roland Young, English actor (d. 1953) November 14 – Amadeo de Souza Cardoso, Portuguese painter (d. 1918) November 15 – Georgia O'Keeffe, American painter (d. 1986)[50] November 17 – Bernard Montgomery, British World War II commander (d. 1976) November 19 – James B. Sumner, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955) November 23 Boris Karloff, British horror film actor (d. 1969) Henry Moseley, English physicist (d. 1915) November 24 – Erich von Manstein, German field marshal (d. 1973) November 25 – Nikolai Vavilov, Russian and Soviet agronomist, botanist and geneticist (d. 1943)[51] November 27 – Masaharu Homma, Japanese general (d. 1946) November 28 Jacobo Palm, Curaçao-born composer (d. 1982) Ernst Röhm, German Nazi SA leader (d. 1934) November 30 – Beatrice Kerr, Australian swimmer, diver, and aquatic performer (d. 1971) December 3 – Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni, former Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1990) December 6 – Lynn Fontanne, British-born actress (d. 1983) December 12 – Kurt Atterberg, Swedish composer (d. 1974) December 13 – Alvin Cullum York, American World War I hero (d. 1964) December 16 – Adone Zoli, Italian politician, 35th Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1960) December 22 – Srinivasa Aaiyangar Ramanujan, Indian mathematician (d. 1920) December 25 – Conrad Hilton, American hotelier (d. 1979) December 26 – Arthur Percival, British general (d. 1966)DeathsJanuary–June January 12 – Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh, British politician (b. 1818) February 19 – Eduard Douwes Dekker, Dutch writer (b. 1820)[52] February 26 – Anandi Gopal Joshi, first Indian woman doctor (b. 1865) February 27 – Alexander Borodin, Russian composer (b. 1833)[53] March 4 – Catherine Huggins, British actor, singer, director and manager (b. 1821) March 8 – Henry Ward Beecher, American clergyman, reformer (b. 1813) March 24 Jean-Joseph Farre, French general and statesman (b. 1816) Justin Holland, American musician, civil rights activist (b. 1819) Ivan Kramskoi, Russian painter (b. 1837) March 28 – Ditlev Gothard Monrad, Danish politician (b. 1811)[54] April 10 – John T. Raymond, American actor (b. 1836) April 19 – Henry Hotze, Swiss-American Confederate propagandist (b. 1833) April 23 – John Ceiriog Hughes, Welsh poet (b. 1832)[55] May 7 – C. F. W. Walther, German-American theologian (b. 1811) May 8 – Aleksandr Ulyanov, Russian revolutionary, brother of V. I. Lenin (b. 1866) May 14 – Lysander Spooner, American philosopher and abolitionist (b. 1808) June 4 – William A. Wheeler, 19th Vice President of the United States (b. 1819) June 10 – Richard Lindon, British inventor of the rugby ball, the India-rubber inflatable bladder and the brass hand pump for the same (b. 1816)July–DecemberGustav Kirchhoff July 8 – John Wright Oakes, English landscape painter (b. 1820) July 17 – Dorothea Dix, American social activist (b. 1802) July 25 – John Taylor, American religious leader (b. 1808) August 8 – Alexander William Doniphan, American lawyer, soldier (b. 1808) August 16 Webster Paulson, English civil engineer (b. 1837) Sir Julius von Haast, German-born New Zealand geologist (b. 1822) August 19 Alvan Clark, American telescope manufacturer (b. 1804) Spencer Fullerton Baird, American naturalist and museum curator (b. 1823) August 20 – Jules Laforgue, French poet (b. 1860)[56] September 12 – August von Werder, Prussian general (b. 1808) October 12 – Dinah Craik, English novelist and poet (b. 1826)[57] October 17 – Gustav Kirchhoff, German physicist (b. 1824) October 21 – Bernard Jauréguiberry, French admiral, statesman (b. 1815) October 26 – Hugo von Kirchbach, Prussian general (d. 1809) October 31 – Sir George Macfarren, British composer and musicologist (b. 1813) November 2 Jenny Lind, Swedish soprano (b. 1820)[58] Alfred Domett, 4th Premier of New Zealand (b. 1811)[59] November 8 – Doc Holliday, American gambler, gunfighter (b. 1851)[60] November 19 – Emma Lazarus, American poet (b. 1859)[61] November 28 – Gustav Fechner, German experimental psychologist (b. 1801) December 5 – Richard Lyons, 1st Viscount Lyons, British diplomat (b. 1817) December 14 – William Garrow Lettsom, British diplomat, mineralogist and spectroscopist (b. 1805) December 23 – Adolphus Frederick Alexander Woodford, British parson (b. 1821)Date unknown Antoinette Nording, Swedish perfume entrepreneur (b. 1814)ReferencesUnited States Naval Institute (1930). Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute. The Institute. p. 406."The Loss of the Kapunda: Details of the Disaster". Belfast Morning News. February 23, 1887. p. 5. Retrieved March 18, 2016.Gaston Tissandier (1889). The Eiffel Tower: A Description of the Monument, Its Construction, Its Machinery, Its Object, and Its Utility. With an Autographic Letter of M. Gustave Eiffel. Illustrated. Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington. p. 27.Dana Facaros; Michael Pauls (1982). New York & the Mid-Atlantic States. Regnery Gateway. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-89526-856-3.Serial set (no.0-3099). 1891. p. 47.Sister Mary Antonio Johnston (1948). Federal Relations with the Great Sioux Indians of South Dakota,1887-1933, with Particular Reference to Land Policy Under the Dawes Act. Catholic University of America Press. p. 41.Mike Cronin; William Murphy; Paul Rouse (2009). The Gaelic Athletic Association, 1884-2009. Irish Academic Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-7165-3028-2.Lewis Ford (1892). The Variety Book Containing Life Sketches and Reminiscences. Washington Press. p. 106.Charles Hitchcock Sherrill (1931). Bismarck & Mussolini. Houghton Mifflin. p. 97-101.Oregon Historical Society (2006). Oregon Historical Quarterly. Oregon Historical Society. p. 326.Royal.gov.uk Archived November 1, 2005, at the Wayback Machine"Parks Canada - This Week in History". March 18, 2004. Archived from the original on March 18, 2004.Price, Trevor J. (2004). "Blyth, James (1839–1906)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/100957. Retrieved April 16, 2014. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)Hardy, Chris (July 6, 2010). "Renewable energy and role of Marykirk's James Blyth". The Courier (Dundee). D. C. Thomson & Co.U.S. Patent No. 366,945, filed July 6, 1886; second patent granted October 11, 1887: U.S. Patent No. 371,496, filed March 12, 1887."Brand and History - About Us - Yamaha Corporation". www.yamaha.com. Retrieved May 19, 2021.Coogan, Tim Pat (2002). Wherever Green Is Worn: The Story of the Irish Diaspora. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 250. ISBN 978-1-4039-6014-6.Wagg, Stephen (2002). British Football and Social Exclusion. Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-7146-5217-7.Westcott, Kathryn (April 9, 2011). "HG Wells or Enrique Gaspar: Whose time machine was first?". BBC News. Retrieved April 9, 2011."The Yasuda Fire and Marine Insurance Company, Limited History". Funding Universe. Retrieved May 19, 2021."Our history". Skanska - Global corporate website. Retrieved October 19, 2020.Johnston, Ben (2010). "Battery Rail Vehicles". Retrieved May 19, 2021.Meseure, Anna; Macke, August (1993). August Macke, 1887-1914. Benedikt Taschen. p. 7. ISBN 978-3-8228-0551-0.Szy, Tibor (1966). Hungarians in America: A Biographical Directory of Professionals of Hungarian Origin in the Americas. Kossuth Foundation. p. 218.Opus. Warwick Publishing Group. 1999. p. 30.Trakl, Georg; Skelton, Robin (1994). Dark Seasons: A Selection of Poems. Broken Jaw Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-921411-22-2."John F. Enders". Nobel Prize. Retrieved April 12, 2021.Official Journal of the European Communities: Debates of the European Parliament. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. March 1975. p. 2.Morris, Mark (1996). A Guide to 20th-century Composers. Methuen. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-413-45601-4.Bissell, Claude (December 15, 1981). The Young Vincent Massey. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4426-3371-1.Béhague, Gerard (1994). Heitor Villa-Lobos: The Search for Brazil's Musical Soul. Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-292-70823-5.Kellner, Bruce (1988). A Gertrude Stein Companion: Content with the Example. Greenwood Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-313-25078-1.Brion, Marcel (1958). Modern Painting; from Impressionism to Abstract Art. Thames and Hudson. p. 95."Fritz Felix PIPES - Olympic Tennis | Austria". International Olympic Committee. June 14, 2016.Bochner, Salomon (1992). Collected Papers of Salomon Bochner. American Mathematical Society. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-8218-7054-9.Ellis, Geoffrey (2007). "Cruttwell, Charles Robert Mowbray Fraser". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32655. Retrieved November 1, 2010. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) (subscription required)Bernard S. Schlessinger; June H. Schlessinger (1991). The Who's Who of Nobel Prize Winners, 1901-1990. Oryx Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-89774-599-4.Anthony Mason (July 5, 2004). Marc Chagall. Gareth Stevens Publishing LLLP. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8368-5649-1.Marcel Brion (1958). Modern Painting; from Impressionism to Abstract Art. Thames and Hudson. p. 94.John Lehmann (1980). Rupert Brooke: His Life and His Legend. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-297-77757-1.August Wesley - Born GloriousMarcus Garvey; Robert A. Hill (August 17, 1987). Marcus Garvey Life and Lessons: A Centennial Companion to the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-520-06265-8.John Flower (January 17, 2013). Historical Dictionary of French Literature. Scarecrow Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8108-7945-4.Alan Kendall (1976). The Tender Tyrant, Nadia Boulanger: A Life Devoted to Music : a Biography. Macdonald and Jane's. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-356-08403-9.John Apostal Lucas (1980). The Modern Olympic Games. A. S. Barnes. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-498-02447-4.Juan Antonio Ramírez (2000). The Beehive Metaphor: From Gaudí to Le Corbusier. Reaktion Books. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-86189-056-6.New Times. Trud. September 1987. p. 28.Allen Andrews (1977). The Life of L. S. Lowry, 1887-1976. Jupiter Books. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-904041-60-6.Irene Harand (1937). His Struggle (an Answer to Hitler). Artcraft Press. p. 240.Britta Benke (2000). Georgia O'Keeffe, 1887-1986: Flowers in the Desert. Taschen. p. 5. ISBN 978-3-8228-5861-5.Sputnik. Novosti Printing House. 1997. p. 5.Frank Northen Magill (1958). Masterplots: Cyclopedia of world authors; seven hundred fifty three novelists, poets, playwrights from the world's fine literature. Salem Press. p. 777.Overture: The Magazine of the Baltimore Symphony. Baltimore Symphony Orchestra Association. 1979. p. 20.Jon Bartley Stewart (2009). Kierkegaard and His Danish Contemporaries: Philosophy, politics and social theory. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-7546-6872-5.David Gwenallt Jones. "Hughes, John (Ceiriog; 1832-1887), poet". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. National Library of Wales. Retrieved November 2, 2020.St James Press; Anthony Levi (1992). Guide to French Literature: 1789 to the Present. St. James Press. p. 345. ISBN 978-1-55862-086-5.August Nemo; Dinah Craik (July 1, 2019). Essential Novelists - Dinah Craik: The Ideals of English Middle-class Life. Tacet Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-85-7777-325-1.Cecilia Jorgensen; Jens Jorgensen (2003). Chopin and the Swedish Nightingale: The Life and Times of Chopin and a Romance Unveiled 154 Years Later. Icons of Europe. p. 89. ISBN 978-2-9600385-0-7.Claudia Orange (December 21, 2015). The Story of a Treaty. Bridget Williams Books. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-927131-34-3.Jon Tuska; Vicki Piekarski; Paul J. Blanding (1984). The Frontier Experience: A Reader's Guide to the Life and Literature of the American West. McFarland. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-89950-118-5. Emma Lazarus (1888). The Poems of Emma Lazarus. Houghton, Mifflin. p. 1.Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms.[fn 4] He acceded to the throne on 8 September 2022 upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II. He was the longest-serving heir apparent in British history and, at the age of 73, is the oldest person to ascend the British throne.Charles was born in Buckingham Palace during the reign of his maternal grandfather, King George VI. Charles was three when his mother ascended the throne in 1952, making him the heir apparent. He was made Prince of Wales in 1958 and his investiture was held in 1969. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, as was his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Charles later spent six months at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Air Force and Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer, with whom he had two sons, William and Harry. In 1996, the couple divorced after they had each engaged in well-publicised extramarital affairs. In 2005, Charles married his long-time partner, Camilla Parker Bowles.As Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II. He founded the youth charity the Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors the Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president, or a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. He has advocated for the conservation of historic buildings and the importance of architecture in society.[3] A critic of modernist architecture, Charles worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his architectural tastes. He is also an author or co-author of over 20 books. An environmentalist, Charles supported organic farming and action to prevent climate change during his time as the manager of the Duchy of Cornwall estates, earning him awards and recognition from environmental groups.[4] He is also a prominent critic of the adoption of genetically modified food. Charles's support for homeopathy and other alternative medicine has been the subject of criticism.THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT IS ISSUED BY THE PRESS SECRETARY TO THE QUEENFurther details of The Queen's Golden Jubilee Weekend have been announced today, with celebrations ranging from street parties to a unique pageant along The Mall.The Jubilee Weekend, taking place 1-4 June, will comprise a four-day festival of events culminating in a procession in central London commemorating the past fifty years of the Queen's reign, and the cultural diversity achieved both within the UK and across the Commonwealth.Saturday, 1 JuneThe Golden Jubilee celebrations will start on the evening of Saturday 1 June with a classical concert including major international stars in the gardens of Buckingham Palace, watched by an audience of 12,000 drawn by public ballot.It will also be seen by many thousands on large video screens specially erected in London and other towns and cities across the United Kingdom to enable as many people as possible to share in the celebrations.Sunday, 2 JuneThis day will be more of a day of reflection focussed on Jubilee church services and bell-ringing across the nation and in the Commonwealth, where The Queen is also Head of State of 15 other countries apart from the United Kingdom.Monday, 3 JuneMonday will see celebration parties and bonfires. Communities will be united in festivity through the staging of garden and street parties as well as other celebrations, including the lighting of beacons and bonfires.The Queen's Golden Jubilee Weekend Trust, a charity, is working with the organisation Golden Jubilee Summer Party which, in partnership with local authorities, church groups, public bodies, broadcasters, youth organisations, business, charitable and other organisations from all parts of the community, will promote participation in the Golden Jubilee and a sense of pride and unity.At lunchtime on Monday, 3 June, and to coincide with a BBC programme of Music Live, it is hoped that church bells, gongs, and other forms of music making will be sounded to signal the start of the Festival celebrations.These will range from simple gatherings of friends to mass events in public parks and on village greens.In a replica of events at the last Golden Jubilee, that of Queen Victoria in 1887, a chain of beacons and bonfires will be lit across the UK from Lands End to John O'Groats and from Great Yarmouth to Holyhead, at the Arctic Circle and in Antartica as well as in the Commonwealth, as a climax to the day's festivities. The beacons will form a chain across the UK.The major informal festivities on Monday, 3 June start with a rock and pop concert in the gardens of Buckingham Palace in the evening, again watched by an audience of 12,000 drawn from the public and broadcast through screens nationwide as well as on television.Afterwards, The Queen will light a special beacon on the Mall outside the gates of Buckingham Palace. This will be followed by a spectacular "Son et Lumiere Fireworks" programme in the vicinity of Buckingham Palace.Tuesday, 4 JuneTuesday, 4 June will start with a State Procession from Buckingham Palace to St Paul's Cathedral for a Thanksgiving Service.The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh will use the Coronation Gold Coach to proceed to St Paul's.After the service at St Paul's and a lunch at The Guildhall hosted by the City, The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh will return to Horse Guards where they will watch a National Festival of processions down the Mall.The Mall Pageant will include:* a carnival theme* youth bands and performers* Commonwealth procession* commemoration of the Queen's fifty years with key personalities, achievers and stars of the reign* a flypast by the RAF and Concorde as The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh appear on the balcony of Buckingham Palace


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